To evaluate the risk and timing of right heart failure (RHF) in feedlot cattle.
Study population consisted of 1,717,356 cattle (5,527 cohorts) in 13 US and Canadian feedlots. There were 1,336 RHF diagnosed at necropsy.
Multivariable models were utilized to evaluate risk and timing of RHF death.
Arrival year was associated with RHF and was influenced by arrival quarter on the magnitude of risk of RHF (P < .01), but no linear increase over years was identified. The impact of feedlot elevation on RHF was modified by breed (beef, dairy, or dairy-cross; P < .01) with beef cattle in the highest elevation category having 0.54 times the risk of RHF as dairy cattle in the same elevation category (LCL = 0.31; UCL = 0.962). Cattle that died due to RHF and were treated for bovine respiratory disease died 11 days (LCL = 1.33, UCL = 20.2 days) sooner than cattle never treated for bovine respiratory disease (P = .03). Cattle breed was associated with RHF timing (P = .01), and dairy-cross cattle RHF cases died approximately 37 days earlier (SE = 13.0 days; P = .01) compared to beef cattle.
This research showed demographic factors associated with RHF and their respective influence on risk and timing of RHF. Risk rates of RHF were similar to previous research. This could allow for comparisons across different feedlot populations, using different diagnoses at necropsy and RHF risk/rates do not appear to be increasing.
To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence and clinical progression of wobbly hedgehog syndrome (WHS) and concurrent incidence of neoplasia in a cohort of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES
Medical records of hedgehogs from 7 institutions across the US over a 20-year period (2000 to 2020) were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were hedgehogs of any sex or age with postmortem CNS histopathology consistent with WHS. Collected data included sex, age at onset and euthanasia, major histopathologic findings, reported neurologic clinical signs, and treatments administered.
24 males and 25 females were included. Fifteen of 49 (31%) individuals had subclinical WHS with no reported antemortem neurologic clinical signs. In neurologically affected (clinical) hedgehogs (n = 34), the mean ± SD age at onset was 3.3 ± 1.5 years with a median (range) time from onset to euthanasia of 51 days (1 to 319 days). In neurologically affected hedgehogs, the most commonly reported clinical signs were ataxia (n = 21) and pelvic limb paresis (16) and the most commonly administered treatment was meloxicam (13). Overall, 31 of 49 (63%) hedgehogs had a concurrent histopathologic diagnosis of neoplasia outside of the CNS.
The prognosis for hedgehogs with WHS is poor. No treatment had a significant effect on survival time, and neoplasia was a common comorbidity in the current cohort. A small but clinically relevant subset of neurologically normal hedgehogs had a histopathologic diagnosis of WHS.
To describe the etiologies, clinicopathologic findings, diagnostic modalities employed, treatments, and outcome associated with cases of septic bicipital bursitis.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES
Medical records of horses diagnosed with septic bicipital bursitis between 2000 and 2021 were reviewed. Horses were included if synoviocentesis of the bicipital bursa revealed a total nucleated cell count of ≥ 20,000 cells/µL with a neutrophil proportion of ≥ 80%, a total protein concentration of ≥ 4.0 g/dL, and/or the presence of bacteria on cytology, or positive culture of the synovial fluid. Information retrieved from medical records included signalment, history, clinicopathologic variables, diagnostic imaging findings, treatment, and outcome.
Trauma was the most common inciting cause (n = 6). Synoviocentesis using ultrasonographic guidance was performed in all cases and showed alterations consistent with septic synovitis. Radiography identified pathology in 5 horses, whereas ultrasonography identified pathology in all horses. Treatment consisted of bursoscopy (n = 6) of the bicipital bursa of which 1 was performed under standing sedation, through-and-through needle lavage (3), bursotomy (2), or medical management alone (2). Five (55.6%) horses survived to discharge. Long-term follow-up was available for 3 horses and all were serviceably sound, with 2 in training as pleasure horses and 1 case continuing retirement.
Ultrasonography was the most informative imaging modality and paramount in obtaining synovial fluid samples for definitive diagnosis of septic bicipital bursitis. Bursoscopy performed under standing sedation is a feasible treatment option. Horses treated for bicipital septic bursitis have a fair prognosis for survival and may return to some level of athletic performance.
To evaluate intraoperative and postoperative complications and outcomes following subconjunctival enucleations with and without third eyelid removal in domestic rabbits.
18 client-owned rabbits with ocular disease confined to the globe that underwent 20 subconjunctival enucleation procedures at a veterinary teaching hospital.
Records were retrospectively reviewed for all enucleations performed at a veterinary teaching hospital from 2014 to 2022. A standard subconjunctival enucleation procedure was performed in all cases, with third eyelid removal in 2 surgeries and without third eyelid removal in the remaining 18 surgeries. Outcomes were assessed on the basis of observations in medical records and owner follow-up.
20 total enucleations were included. Reported reasons for enucleation included suspected or confirmed ocular Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in 9 rabbits, refractory glaucoma in 4 rabbits, and various intraocular diseases in 5 rabbits. The only intraoperative complication reported was hemorrhage during the third eyelid removal in 1 surgery. Postoperative complications included serous to mucoid discharge from the surgical site in 8 of 20 surgeries and swelling at the surgery site in 2 of the 8 cases that had discharge. Postoperative swelling spontaneously resolved within 3 months of surgery; postoperative discharge spontaneously resolved within 10 months of surgery.
Subconjunctival enucleation with or without third eyelid removal in rabbits may be a viable enucleation technique to reduce the risk for intraoperative hemorrhage, but it can result in postoperative complications, including transient discharge and swelling at the surgical site.
Describe surgical guidelines for a new technique to correct stenotic nares in brachycephalic cats.
8 client-owned brachycephalic cats with stenotic nares between April 2017 and July 2022.
8 brachycephalic cats with severe stenotic nares presented to the Angell Animal Medical Center with the patient age ranging from 2 years to 9 years of age. Surgical correction was performed on each cat with the combined use of the “Alar Fold Lift-Up” and “Sulcus Pull-Down” techniques.
Successful correction of the stenotic nares was achieved, enabling each cat to breathe normally.
The combined use of the “Alar Fold Lift-Up” and “Sulcus Pull-Down” techniques is simple to perform on an outpatient basis. Surgery is restricted to the adjacent skin and does not require the surgical alteration of the external nose or nares. Long-term follow-up indicates the procedure is effective in improving nasal breathing in each cat.
To report preliminary findings of hypofractionated superficial radiotherapy for treatment of cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) and report the acute and late toxicity associated with its use.
3 dogs and 1 cat.
In this retrospective study, medical records from January 2021 through July 2022 were searched for animals that received superficial radiation therapy for MCTs of the head.
4 patients with 5 MCTs were included. Three of the masses were periocular and required protection of the globe with a tungsten eye shield. One patient did not complete the intended protocol due to diffuse metastatic spread noted after the second fraction. Of the 3 patients that completed their protocol, 100% had a complete response. Two canine patients were treated adjunctively with toceranib. Two of the 4 patients experienced grade 1 acute veterinary radiation therapy oncology group (VRTOG) toxicity, and the 3 patients that completed their protocol experienced grade 1 late VRTOG toxicity. No radiation effects were documented to the cornea or lens in any patient.
Superficial radiation therapy was effective in our limited study population, and patients experienced minimal side effects for treatment of cutaneous MCTs.
To assess the clinical outcome of a ferret undergoing a ureteroneocystostomy for treatment of urolithiasis.
A 10-month-old spayed female ferret.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES
The ferret was evaluated for straining to urinate and defecate, hematochezia, and a rectal prolapse. Plain radiographs revealed large cystic and ureteral calculi. Clinicopathologic analyses indicated the ferret was anemic with an elevated creatinine concentration. Exploratory laparotomy defined bilateral ureteral calculi that were unable to be successfully moved into the bladder. A cystotomy was performed to remove a large cystic calculus. Serial abdominal ultrasonographic examinations showed progressive hydronephrosis of the left kidney and persistent pyelectasia of the right kidney secondary to bilateral ureteral calculi. This confirmed a left ureteral obstruction secondary to the distal calculus while the right ureter remained patent.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A ureteroneocystostomy was performed to allow for left renal decompression. The ferret recovered well despite worsening hydronephrosis of the left kidney in the perioperative period. The ferret was discharged from the hospital 10 days after initial evaluation. At 3-week follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation of the left kidney and ureter.
A ureteroneocystostomy successfully allowed renal decompression and ureteral patency in a ferret with urolithiasis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time this procedure has been reported in a ferret for treatment of a ureteral calculus obstruction and may result in good long-term outcome.
β-Hemolytic Streptococcus (BHS) species are important pathogens with both human and veterinary significance. In human medicine, BHS are considered universally susceptible to β-lactams while BHS of veterinary origin have been reported with up to 8% β-lactam resistance. Recently, veterinary diagnostic laboratories were made aware of significant variability of test method performance for BHS among laboratories. This article explores potential sources of error in antimicrobial susceptibility test performance and result interpretation that may have contributed to the unusual rates of resistance to β-lactams observed in this bacterial species. In addition, potential impacts to research, clinical practice, surveillance, and public health will be discussed.