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Introduction

A 12-year-old 5.66-kg male green iguana (Iguana iguana) was referred with a history of left hind limb monoparesis and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the right hind limb femoral pores. A right hind limb mass had been first noticed 11 months earlier, and the referring veterinarian had surgically removed it twice, with the most recent surgery having been performed 1.5 months earlier. For both procedures, anesthesia had been induced with alfaxalone (10 mg/kg, IM) and maintained with isoflurane, and enrofloxacin (11 mg/kg, SC) had been administered. Histologic examination of removed tissues indicated that the mass was a

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A 1-year-old sexually intact female Brazilian Shorthair cat was evaluated because of bilateral third eyelid protrusion and tremor episodes that had started 4 days earlier. According to the owner, the cat had had 1 episode of diarrhea that had resolved spontaneously. The 4 other cats that lived with the patient were healthy.

During physical and neurologic examinations, a low body condition score (3/9), dehydration (7%), moderate bilateral third eyelid protrusion, and neurologic deficits consistent with lumbosacral myelopathy were observed. According to the owner, signs of paraplegia and urinary incontinence had been present since the cat had been adopted.

Neurologic examination
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Introduction

A 10-year-old 21.5-kg spayed female Staffordshire Terrier was evaluated because of pain and unwillingness to ambulate. The owners reported that they had tripped over the dog several days earlier and the dog had seemed to be in pain ever since. The dog had a history of multiple mass excisions (mast cell tumors, melanocytomas, and several benign masses) and was routinely rechecked by a board-certified veterinary oncologist. On presentation through the emergency service the day after being tripped over, the dog had signs of pain during palpation of the lumbosacral region and was reactive to tail-jacking. Survey thoracolumbar spinal radiographs

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Introduction

A 4-month-old 17.5-kg neutered male Boxer was referred to the neurology department of a referral veterinary hospital for evaluation of a 3-day history of acute-onset progressive reluctance to walk, right pelvic limb lameness progressing to non–weight-bearing lameness, and spontaneous yelping when standing up and walking, with no history of trauma. Radiographic findings for the lumbosacral region, pelvis, and hip and knee joints were unremarkable (Figure 1). Prior to referral, the dog received meloxicam, which lead to mild improvement; however, on the day before referral, the dog’s condition deteriorated.

Ventrodorsal (A) and lateral (B)

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Introduction

A 10.7-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was referred to our veterinary teaching hospital following a peracute onset of static, nonprogressive ambulatory vestibular tetra-ataxia with a left-sided head tilt. Hematologic and biochemical testing performed by the referring veterinarian revealed a high C-reactive protein concentration (34.1 mg/L; reference interval, 0 to 10 mg/L), but results were otherwise unremarkable. A single tonic-clonic seizure occurred during assessment by the referring veterinary surgeon and reportedly responded to diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Results of a general physical examination and serial blood pressure measurements were unremarkable.

AssessmentAnatomic diagnosis

The bilateral positional nystagmus and strabismus, vestibular

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 1.5-year-old 16-kg spayed female Australian Cattle Dog was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of sudden-onset paraparesis that had progressed to paraplegia over the past 3 days. The dog had difficulty urinating on the day of presentation. The dog’s history was otherwise unremarkable, and its vaccination status was current. The dog had outdoor access, and trauma could not be ruled out. A physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and abdominal radiography were performed by the referring veterinarian; there were no abnormal findings. The dog was referred to the veterinary neurology service. On admission, the dog was assessed by

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Introduction

An 8-year-old 48.2-kg neutered male German Shepherd Dog was presented for examination because of a sudden onset of apparent spinal discomfort (noted as a reluctance to jump, vocalization, and signs of discomfort elicited by palpation of the vertebral column), which progressed to ambulatory paraparesis and an inability to void its urinary bladder. The dog had a preexisting comorbidity of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, for which it was receiving treatment (a pancreatic enzyme supplement and oxytetracycline); the condition was considered controlled. Prior to referral, routine hematologic and serum biochemical profiles were performed and results were considered unremarkable. Physical examination revealed reduced

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 1-year-old 20-kg castrated male goat was referred because of anorexia, signs of depression, and stiff gait of all 4 limbs over a 48-hour period. Despite initial treatment with tolfenamic acid, propionic acid, strychnos nux vomica, and ivermectin, the goat’s clinical signs worsened. The goat was not vaccinated, had no previous medical history, and was fed hay and grass. It was living with another goat that remained healthy. The owners reported a possible ingestion of plastic tarpaulins 1 week before development of clinical signs.

Clinical evaluation revealed tachycardia (100 beats/min) and tachypnea (32 breaths /min). The rest of the

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A 3-year-old 16.2-kg sexually intact female Cocker Spaniel was presented to the referring veterinarian following a road traffic accident. On emergency assessment, the dog was distressed and tachycardic with extensive superficial wounds to the head and neck, frequent intermittent vocalization, and severe cervical hyperesthesia. The remainder of the physical examination findings were unremarkable. Point-of-care ultrasonography revealed no free fluid in the thorax or abdomen. Results of a minimum emergency clinicopathologic analysis were considered normal. The dog's condition was stabilized with IV fluid therapy and multimodal analgesia, including meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h), acetaminophen (10 mg/kg, IV, q 12

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Introduction

A 10-year-old 10.3-kg spayed female American Eskimo Dog was evaluated because of pharyngeal dysphagia, increased salivation, and regurgitation. Two weeks earlier, the owner noted the dog had difficulty during swallowing and was drooling. The dog then began regurgitating, especially after drinking; the frequency of regurgitation increased to 10 times within the preceding 24 hours.

Physical examination of the dog revealed pseudo-ptyalism, and regurgitation of white foamy liquid was observed. There were no other abnormal findings except a grade 1/6 apical systolic heart murmur. On neurologic examination, the gag reflex was absent. The retractor bulbi (corneal) reflex, menace response, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association