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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effectiveness of a digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT) for preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

SAMPLE

42 third-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES

Students were randomly assigned to 3 instructional methods: independent study (ie, 45 minutes to read a highlighted textbook chapter), lecture (ie, 45-minute lecture by a faculty member), or digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT; ie, 45-minute narrated, interactive module). Written and practical tests were administered after each instruction session. For the practical test, each student was required to obtain a series of ultrasound images of a live horse, and images were later scored for quality by an individual unaware of the instructional method used.

RESULTS

Higher-quality ultrasound images were obtained by veterinary students who had reviewed the DIMT rather than the analogous information in textbook chapters. No difference in scores was identified between students in the lecture group and those in the DIMT group. Students’ perceptions suggested that practical instruction facilitated by clinicians was a key component of learning how to perform ultrasonography in horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results supported the use of DIMTs in preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

All human clinical laboratory testing in the United States is regulated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of the US FDA, 1 and other countries have similar regulations. Failure of such laboratories to correct issues of noncompliance with legislation results in lack of accreditation and termination of laboratory services. In contrast, veterinary laboratories are not uniformly regulated by government entities. Laboratory accreditation is offered by the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians and is optional. This accreditation is “restricted to publicly funded, full-service laboratories, full service being defined as offering necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology, and virology or equivalent services

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author: Susan B. Harper

Abstract

Institutions that conduct agricultural research must plan for emergencies and disasters that have the potential to compromise the health and safety of research animals and personnel. Agricultural research facilities have unique challenges owing to the overall size and scope of operations, wide range of species housed, and various types of facilities maintained. Identification of hazards and development of strategies to minimize anticipated risks are important to creating a successful mitigation and recovery plan that will minimize both short- and long-term adverse effects on program operations and resources.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author: Bridgette Bain

The AVMA Council on Education is recognized by the US Department of Education as the accrediting body for colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States. Through its accreditation policies, the Council on Education ensures that colleges of veterinary medicine meet minimum standards in veterinary medical education and that students who graduate from those colleges receive an education that will prepare them for entry-level positions in the veterinary profession. On request, the council will also accredit colleges of veterinary medicine in other countries, and 20 nondomestic colleges of veterinary medicine are currently accredited by the Council on Education.

In 2019,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe an animal health database used to facilitate effective disaster response and retrospective analysis of data concerning animals other than cats and dogs affected by the 2018 California Camp Fire.

ANIMALS

Veterinary medical entries (n = 206) for evacuated or rescued animals (151) of various species, including avian, bovine, camelid, caprine, equine, ovine, and porcine species, temporarily housed at the Butte County fairgrounds in Gridley, Calif.

PROCEDURES

Case data were collected via a standardized form by volunteers with the University of California-Davis Veterinary Emergency Response Team during triage and treatment of animals brought to the shelter. Collected data were entered into a database. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to evaluate associations among patient species, types and severity of injuries, and behavior.

RESULTS

Burns, respiratory disease, gastrointestinal illnesses, and lacerations were the most prevalent illnesses and injuries among the overall shelter population for the first 12 days of the Camp Fire. Ovine patients were more likely to have had respiratory illness than were other species. The most prevalent medical conditions among equine patients were lacerations and gastrointestinal illnesses. Severe burns were most common among porcine, camelid, and avian patients. The temporal distribution of cases suggested the immediate evacuation of equine species and the delayed movement of bovine and avian species to the shelter.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Collection of animal health information through the database allowed assessment of prevalent medical conditions among various farm animals following a wildfire. Adaptation of this database to other disasters could improve emergency response protocols by providing guidance for management of resources and allow retrospective assessment for response improvement.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The editorial staff is pleased to list the 51 book reviewers who served in 2019. Thank you for your contribution to the book review feature in the JAVMA.

Randy Ackman, Cedar Rapids, IA

Leslie Bauer, San Antonio, TX

Angela Baysinger, Bruning, NE

Steven Benscheidt, Longmont, CO

Jeannine Berger, San Francisco, CA

Laura Black, Seattle, WA

Betsy Bond, New York, NY

Kimberlee Buck, Birch Run, MI

Lindsey E. Bullen, Cary, NC

Donna Carver, Raleigh, NC

Thomas de Maar, Brownsville, TX

Michael W. Dryden, Manhattan, KS

Matthew Edson, Mount Holly, NJ

Melanie Goble, Manitowoc, WI

Michelle Goodnight, Lawrenceville, GA

Wil

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The editorial staff thanks the 558 reviewers who served in 2019. Their contributions have made possible the high quality of scientific presentation that characterizes JAVMA. Numbers in parentheses represent the number of manuscripts reviewed.

Turi Aarnes, Columbus, OH (1)

Stacie Aarsvold, Minneapolis, MN (4)

Emma N. Adam, Weatherford, TX (1)

Chess Adams, Madison, WI (5)

Larry Adams, West Lafayette, IN (1)

Stephen Adams, West Lafayette, IN (1)

Darcy B. Adin, Gainesville, FL (2)

Elizabeth Adkins, Vienna, VA (2)

Michael Aherne, Gainesville, FL (2)

Hasan Albasan, Milford, MI (4)

Lisa G. Alexander, Rohnert Park, CA (1)

Karin Allenspach, Ames,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify rabies virus variants (RVVs) isolated from bats and terrestrial mammals in Nuevo Leon between 2008 and 2015 and Coahuila in 2006.

SAMPLE

RVVs isolated from 15 bats and terrestrial mammals in Nuevo Leon and from a cow (Bos taurus) in Coahuila, along with 46 reference rabies virus sequences.

PROCEDURES

Antigenic characterization of the 16 isolates was performed with an indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Genomic sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene in the 16 isolates was performed with a reverse transcription PCR assay. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the 62 sequences was performed by means of Bayesian inference.

RESULTS

9 isolates from bats and 1 isolate from a domestic cat that became infected as a result of contact with a Mexican free-tailed bat all clustered in the lineage associated with Lasiurus spp in the Americas or the lineage associated with Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana. An isolate from a domestic dog was identified as a variant associated with the dog-coyote lineage. The RVV isolated from a fox clustered in an Arizona fox lineage. The 3 RVVs from skunks (Mephitis macroura) were placed in a lineage with variants isolated from spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius). The RVV isolated from the cow was clustered in a lineage associated with foxes in Texas and separate from the lineage for the fox from Nuevo Leon.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results reinforced the need for Mexico to implement rabies surveillance and monitoring programs for bats and wild-living terrestrial carnivores.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author: Loic Desquilbet

A crisis has recently been described in the reproducibility of studies reported in leading science journals. 1–6 One of the multiple origins of this crisis is that significant statistical results obtained in some studies were not replicated or supported in other studies. 7–9 One of the reasons given is that researchers often wrongly generalize their results to the population of interest (ie, the target population) after obtaining a significant result in their study sample. 10,11 P-hacking and HARKing (where HARK stands for “hypothesis after result is known”) are inappropriate methods of analyzing and interpreting study findings that

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2018 in the United States.

ANIMALS

All animals submitted for laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the United States during 2018.

PROCEDURES

State and territorial public health departments provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2018. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic animal and wildlife rabies cases.

RESULTS

During 2018, 54 jurisdictions reported 4,951 rabid animals to the CDC, representing an 11.2% increase from the 4,454 rabid animals reported in 2017. Texas (n = 695 [14.0%]), Virginia (382 [7.7%]), Pennsylvania (356 [7.2%]), North Carolina (332 [6.7%]), Colorado (328 [6.6%]), and New York (320 [6.5%]) together accounted for almost half of all rabid animals reported in 2018. Of the total reported rabies cases, 4,589 (92.7%) involved wildlife, with bats (n = 1,635 [33.0%]), raccoons (1,499 [30.3%]), skunks (1,004 [20.3%]), and foxes (357 [7.2%]) being the major species. Rabid cats (n = 241 [4.9%]) and dogs (63 [1.3%]) accounted for > 80% of rabid domestic animals reported in 2018. There was a 4.6% increase in the number of samples submitted for testing in 2018, compared with the number submitted in 2017. Three human rabies deaths were reported in 2018, compared with 2 in 2017.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The overall number of animal rabies cases increased from 2017 to 2018. Laboratory diagnosis of rabies in animals is critical to ensure that human rabies postexposure prophylaxis is administered judiciously.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association