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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The intention of this tutorial video is to illustrate the methods of examining the forelimb and neck of a horse in order to identify abnormalities that may be associated with lameness or disease.

ANIMAL

A 16-year-old quarter horse gelding was used for examination.

METHODS

The horse was examined for abnormalities by means of physical examination.

RESULTS

The examination of the forelimb and neck of the horse was successfully completed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This examination technique is required to identify abnormalities in the equine forelimb and can be utilized during a lameness examination.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial describing intraperitoneal (IP) and intracoelomic (IC) therapeutics (IP/IC fluid therapy, euthanasia, direct peritoneal resuscitation).

ANIMALS

Dogs, cats, and exotic pets.

METHODS

Peritoneal and coelomic centesis allows for delivery of fluids or to perform euthanasia. The peritoneal and coelomic membranes contain a vast network of capillaries and lymphatics that allow absorption of fluids and blood products. Needles are inserted aseptically IP or IC at species-specific locations to avoid iatrogenic damage. In mammals, the needle is inserted in a periumbilical location at a 1- to 2-cm radius from the umbilicus, while the needle is inserted into the ventral inguinal fossa in chelonians and lateroventrally in lizards and snakes. Direct peritoneal resuscitation is a human technique in which a dextrose/electrolyte solution infused IP reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury, edema, and tissue necrosis to improve mortality in patients with diseases like shock and sepsis or who require acute abdominal surgery.

RESULTS

Isotonic crystalloids are given IP/IC at 10- to 20-mL/kg doses (smaller volumes in reptiles) and blood products at standard calculated doses. Sodium pentobarbital without phenytoin (3 mL/4.5 kg) is used for IP/IC euthanasia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Being aware of multiple routes for fluid and blood product administration allows treatment in animals for which intravenous or intraosseous catheterization is undesirable or impossible. While intravenous or intraosseous routes are always preferred, especially for resuscitation, familiarity with locations for IP/IC fluid and euthanasia is useful. Techniques like direct peritoneal resuscitation are not currently used in animals but might be translated to veterinary cases in the future.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial detailing how to perform continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitoring in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

Any size dog or cat.

METHODS

To measure blood pressure noninvasively, a blood pressure cuff is selected on the basis of the circumference of the limb and placed at the level of the right atrium. For oscillometric blood pressure measurement, the cuff is connected to an oscillometric unit that will automatically inflate and deflate the cuff in order to measure the patient’s blood pressure using an internal algorithm. For Doppler blood pressure measurement, a sphygmomanometer is used to manually inflate the pressure cuff 30 to 40 mm Hg above the point where the audible arterial sounds disappear. Then, the cuff is gradually deflated until the audible arterial sounds return; the pressure at the first sound is recorded as the blood pressure. To generate continuous readings, the oscillometric machine is set to measure blood pressure as often as every minute. Alternatively, the Doppler crystal is taped to the patient’s leg to facilitate repeated cuff inflation/deflation and collection of blood pressure values as often as every minute.

RESULTS

Continuous blood pressure readings can be obtained by both the oscillometric and Doppler techniques.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Continuous blood pressure readings identify trends in a patient’s cardiovascular status. The most reliable oscillometric blood pressure reading is the mean arterial pressure. Doppler blood pressure values are considered systolic in dogs. Doppler values in cats underestimate systolic and overestimate mean blood pressure.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial on how to perform an alternate method for urethral catheterization, the 2-catheter technique.

ANIMALS

Small female cats and dogs that are too small for concurrent digital palpation (generally < 10 kg).

METHODS

A larger red rubber catheter (18 Fr in dogs, and 10 Fr in cats) is gently fed into the vaginal canal and reflected dorsally, then a smaller urethral catheter can be introduced ventrally, angling downwards at a 45° angle, into the urethral orifice for urinary catheterization.

RESULTS

The 2-catheter method is a useful alternative in petite female cats and dogs to improve rates of successful catheterization.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The inability to perform concurrent digital palpation in petite female dogs and cats can make urinary catheterization more challenging due to the inability to palpate locoregional anatomic landmarks and without the added manipulation of the catheter tip during placement. Using a second, larger catheter to occlude the vaginal canal similarly to how a finger would during digital palpation can aid in successful catheterization in this challenging subset of veterinary patients.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association