The first part of this 2-part series focused on the epidemiological, pathological, genetic, and epi-genetic factors that may contribute to the development of separation anxiety (SA), the most common stand-alone behavioral diagnosis in pet dogs and the second most common behavioral problem after all aggressions reported in behavior clinics.1,2,3,4,5 The second part in this series focuses on pathological changes associated with anxiety, effects of anxiety on behavioral patterns, pharmacological treatment options and their mechanisms of action, and existing efficacy data, and on introduction of a multifactorial model for assessing
Separation anxiety (SA) is the most common stand-alone behavioral diagnosis and the second most common behavioral problem for dogs, behind only all diagnoses that involved aggression.1 Separation anxiety may disrupt the human animal bond1 and affect the welfare and lifespan of dogs,2,3,4,5 with SA a common reason that dogs are presented to veterinarians for euthanasia or are relinquished to shelters where affected dogs may be euthanized because they are not considered suitable candidates for adoption.1,3,4,5
To qualitatively review reports on lateral line depigmentation (LLD) in marine and freshwater fish.
English-language publications concerning LLD published before March 1, 2020.
Electronic searches of CAB abstracts, PubMed, and Web of Science databases and the proceedings of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine were performed. Records were systematically screened and selected for inclusion in an integrative review. Bibliographies of records included in the review were examined to identify other records to be screened. Included records were qualitatively reviewed. Evidence level and quality were graded according to previously described criteria. Information pertinent to epidemiological factors, etiopathogenesis, clinical and histopathologic findings, treatment, and prevention of LLD was collected.
401 records were screened, and 24 unique publications (16 peer-reviewed articles, 1 textbook, and 7 abstracts) were included in the study; 12 (50%), 1 (4%), 6 (25%), and 5 (21%) were classified as evidence level I (experimental), II (quasi-experimental), III (nonexperimental), and V (clinical reports or clinician experience), respectively. Seventeen (71%) and 7 (29%) reports were classified as high quality and good quality, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
LLD should be considered a clinical observation indicative of a dermato-logic response of fish to suboptimal conditions; LLD should continue to be adopted as the preferred term to describe the classic signs. Whereas gross findings are similar among species, histologic findings can vary. Evidence-based treatment of LLD for individual fish consists of source control (changing tanks or systems), topical treatment with 0.01% becaplermin gel, supportive care, and antimicrobial treatment when warranted. For schools of fish, treatment and prevention of LLD should be focused on improving suboptimal environmental and physiologic conditions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:617–625)
Harmful algal blooms can have deleterious effects on animal and human health as well as the environment and are anticipated to become more frequent and intensified in the future because of climate change. Veterinarians are well positioned to diagnose and treat animals affected by HABs and to educate livestock owners and the public about health risks and environmental issues associated with those toxic events. Pets, livestock, wildlife, and marine life can all be affected by HABs. Information about HABs is becoming increasingly assessable as a result of ongoing research into the structure, properties, toxic mechanisms, and geographic distribution of toxins found in HABs. The AVMA's multi-entity working group on HABs is comprised of members from the Aquatic Veterinary Medicine Committee, Committee on Environmental Issues, and Council on Public Health and is working to make more information and resources regarding HABs available to practicing veterinarians. The present article is the first of those resources and provides a review of HABs, with a focus on livestock. It includes background material about bloom formation, appearance, and persistence as well as descriptions of clinical observations from early field cases and more recent information about the causative organisms and toxins to provide livestock veterinarians a foundation for understanding HABs. Reporting of HABs and prevention and mitigation strategies for livestock owners are also discussed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:151–161)
Honeybees are estimated to be responsible for the pollination of approximately 35% of the world's food crops and used for > 90% of global commercial pollination services.1 With the introduction of the new Veterinary Feed Directive for honeybees,2 veterinarians will clearly need to become more involved with the apiary industry and honeybee hobbyist in the management of honeybee colonies. Examining a hive and forming a valid medical opinion about a colony's health require knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of a colony, and specific tools can help veterinarians assess a colony's health status more accurately.
In sheep, scrapie is a fatal neurologic disease that is caused by a misfolded protein called a prion (designated PrPSc). The normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is encoded by an endogenous gene, PRNP, that is present in high concentrations within the CNS. Although a broad range of functions has been described for PrPC, its entire range of functions has yet to be fully elucidated. Accumulation of PrPSc results in neurodegeneration. The PRNP gene has several naturally occurring polymorphisms, and there is a strong correlation between scrapie susceptibility and PRNP genotype. The cornerstone of scrapie eradication programs is the selection of scrapie-resistant genotypes to eliminate classical scrapie. Transmission of classical scrapie in sheep occurs during the prenatal and periparturient periods when lambs are highly susceptible. Initially, the scrapie agent is disseminated throughout the lymphoid system and into the CNS. Shedding of the scrapie agent occurs before the onset of clinical signs. In contrast to classical scrapie, atypical scrapie is believed to be a spontaneous disease that occurs in isolated instances in older animals within a flock. The agent that causes atypical scrapie is not considered to be naturally transmissible. Transmission of the scrapie agent to species other than sheep, including deer, has been experimentally demonstrated as has the transmission of nonscrapie prion agents to sheep. The purpose of this review is to outline the current methods for diagnosing scrapie in sheep and the techniques used for studying the pathogenesis and host range of the scrapie agent. Also discussed is the US scrapie eradication program including recent updates.
Amitraz is presently the only FDA-approved treatment for demodicosis in dogs in the United States. Amitraz treatment involves a protracted course of administration and risks of severe adverse effects such as sedation, bradycardia, and respiratory depression, which are caused by activation of α2-adrenergic receptors. Other treatment options include macrocyclic lactones and lime sulfur, but these products have varied efficacy and high risks of adverse effects. Several recent studies have indicated that isoxazolines are capable of reducing Demodex mite counts in canine and feline patients with demodicosis by ≥ 99% in as little as 1 month with few adverse effects. This article reviews the status of isoxazolines in regard to labeled uses in dogs and cats in the United States, extralabel clinical use for treatment of demodicosis in these species, and safety of orally administered formulations of these drugs.
Dog owners are increasingly interested in using commercially available testing panels to learn about the genetics of their pets, both to identify breed ancestry and to screen for specific genetic diseases. Helping owners interpret and understand results from genetic screening panels is becoming an important issue facing veterinarians. The objective of this review article is to introduce basic concepts behind genetic studies and current genetic screening tests while highlighting their value in veterinary medicine. The potential uses and limitations of commercially available genetic testing panels as screening tests are discussed, including appropriate cautions regarding the interpretation of results. Future directions, particularly with regard to the study of common complex genetic diseases, are also described.
Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in dogs has led to more effective treatment plans, including skin barrier repair and new targeted treatments for management of allergy-associated itch and inflammation. The intent of this review article is to provide an update on the etiologic rationale behind current recommendations that emphasize a multimodal approach for the management of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Increasing knowledge of this complex disease process will help direct future treatment options.
Vascular ring anomalies are congenital disorders of the aortic vasculature that involve complete or partial encircling of the esophagus and trachea. These abnormalities are a result of aberrant embryonic development, whereby abnormalities of the third, fourth, or sixth aortic arches result in 1 or 2 vessels coursing around the esophagus and trachea.1 The underlying, softer esophagus may be completely, partially, or inconsequentially compressed, depending on the abnormal vessel.2,3 This results in the classic clinical manifestation of postprandial regurgitation of solid foods by young dogs soon after weaning.4,5