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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To perform a qualitative analysis of the distribution of µ- and κ-opioid receptor mRNA in the forebrain and midbrain of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

SAMPLE

8 brains of male budgerigars.

PROCEDURES

Custom-made RNA hybridization probes (RNAscope; Advanced Cell Diagnostics Inc) were used for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays performed on selected fresh frozen prepared sections of brain tissue to identify µ- and κ-opioid receptor mRNA.

RESULTS

There was κ-opioid receptor mRNA present in the nucleus dorsomedialis posterior thalami, lateral striatum, mesopallium, tractus corticohabenularis et corticoseptalis, griseum et fibrosum, stratum griseum centrale, medial striatum, and area parahippocampalis. There was µ-opioid receptor mRNA present in the stratum griseum centrale, stratum opticum, dorsomedialis posterior thalami, area parahippocampalis, medial striatum, and nidopallium intermedium.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Consistent with previous studies in pigeons and domestic chicks, κ-opioid receptors were more abundant than µ-opioid receptors in the samples of the present study. The results of this study may also help explain the hyperexcitability or lack of response that can occur with administration of pure µ-opioid receptor agonists, but not κ-opioid receptor agonists. This study was not quantitative, so further research should endeavor to compare the various regions of the brain using FISH technology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Author: Mark Zabel

In the Colorado State University (CSU) College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS), collaboration is the foundation of our world-renowned expertise in life sciences. Our “team science” approach means we seek out connections—with fellow researchers worldwide and with corporate, foundation, and agency partners—that make our science stronger.

These collaborations transform foundational research into clinical practice through translational medicine to deliver One Health solutions—vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tools—that benefit animals, people, and the planet. Our scientists contribute to this one health approach through collaboration of research teams with diverse skillsets and discoveries in internationally recognized research areas of expertise.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Author: Kathryn Meurs

At NC State, we are improving the world of veterinary medicine in numerous and exciting ways. Here are four areas where we are breaking new ground.

CONQUERING PAIN. Like humans, animals experience chronic pain from a variety of conditions such as arthritis, back issues, and nerve damage. In veterinary medicine, however, chronic pain is not well understood and often underdiagnosed. The first step to a breakthrough is establishing methods to measure pain. The work of B. Duncan X. Lascelles, professor of translational pain research, has helped us learn how to reliably measure chronic pain in naturally occurring chronic

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether an acceptance and commitment training (ACT) program targeting reactions to difficult client interactions would reduce burden transfer, stress, and burnout among veterinary healthcare teams.

SAMPLE

Small animal veterinary hospital employees randomly assigned to participate in an ACT program (intervention group; n = 72) or to not undergo the training program (control group; 71).

PROCEDURES

The study was designed as a randomized, controlled, parallel-arms trial. All participants completed prestudy assessments of burden transfer, stress, and burnout. The ACT program consisted of 3 small-group–format educational sessions tailored to reducing reactivity to difficult veterinary client interactions; sessions were delivered via video teleconference. At the end of the educational sessions (posttest) and 1 month later (1-month follow-up), assessments of burden transfer, stress, and burnout were repeated, and participants in the intervention group provided ratings of program helpfulness and frequency of use for techniques taught in the program.

RESULTS

Participants receiving the program rated it as helpful and reported frequent use of program techniques. Relative to the control group, the intervention group showed significantly reduced burden transfer, stress, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout after completing the educational sessions. These improvements were maintained at the 1-month follow-up.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings support the usefulness of this program in reducing occupational distress in veterinary medicine. Future work is needed to examine whether it is similarly effective in formats that could be more broadly disseminated (eg, asynchronous, self-paced, independent learning).

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To retrospectively evaluate preoperative historical, biochemical, and cardiovascular screening data for predictors of survival to discharge and long-term survival in feline renal allograft recipients from 1 institution.

ANIMALS

166 cats that underwent renal transplantation at the University of Pennsylvania between 1998 and 2018.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed for preoperative historical information, biochemical data, and cardiac assessment including auscultation findings, pre- and postoperative systolic blood pressure measurements, thoracic radiographic evaluation, and echocardiographic measurements. The need for hemodialysis, the number of surgical procedures, native kidney biopsy diagnosis and survival time was also recorded. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to generate survival plots and estimate median survival times with a 95% CI. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed to determine variables that were independently associated with survival to discharge and long-term survival.

RESULTS

The patient population primarily consisted of adult male DSH cats (70%) diagnosed with IRIS stage 4 CKD (66.3%). Abnormalities identified on preoperative cardiac assessment, including hypertension, the presence of a murmur, echocardiographic changes, and radiographic signs of congestive heart failure, were not associated with survival to discharge or long-term survival. Age was the only single significant variable associated with survival, and the risk of death increased by 11% (95% CI, 6% to 17%) for every 1 year in patient age.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The presence of cardiac abnormalities identified during the screening process of cats presenting for transplantation should not immediately exclude a potential candidate for the procedure. Owners considering transplantation should be educated on the impact of age on survival following surgery.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

The One Health approach asserts that the health of animals and people is closely connected. Under this approach, the CDC and AVMA work globally to attain optimal health outcomes for both animals and humans. One facet of optimal health involves access to safe and effective anesthetics and analgesics. The anesthetic and analgesic drug ketamine possesses unique properties that make it particularly important for both veterinary and human patients in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These properties include its portability and stability, low cost, ease of administration, and wide therapeutic margin. China advocates regularly to the United Nations for global scheduling of ketamine as a controlled substance. However, this would disproportionately restrict access to ketamine in LMICs, imposing bioethical challenges related to animal patients, human patients, and communities. In alignment with the One Health vision, opposing global scheduling of ketamine in LMICs creates a unique opportunity for collaboration between veterinarians and physicians in LMICs and high-income countries to prevent these bioethical challenges.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To retrospectively review the efficacy of combined surgery comprising dorsal laminectomy and dorsal fixation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate as treatment for dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS).

ANIMALS

21 client owned dogs diagnosed with DLSS and treated surgically.

PROCEDURES

Based on clinical records, signalments, clinical signs, findings from orthopedic and neurological examinations, imaging findings, and postoperative complications were evaluated at the following time points: preoperatively, postoperatively, and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery.

RESULTS

In all 21 cases, clinical signs were alleviated, proprioceptive deficits were improved from 3 months after surgery, and no recurrence of clinical signs was observed during the observation period. Minor complications were observed in 6 cases (28.6%), including implant failure in 2 (9.5%), delayed healing of surgical wounds in 2 (9.5%), seroma in 1 (4.8%), and swelling of the affected area in 1 (4.8%). There was no case with major complications.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Combined surgery comprising dorsal laminectomy and dorsal fixation using screws and polymethylmethacrylate is a useful treatment that can improve long-term clinical signs in dogs with DLSS.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

The new 2022 AVMA Pet Ownership and Demographics Sourcebook  examines types of pet owners, spending on veterinary care, veterinary visits, and client satisfaction.

Full access

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation, treatment, and treatment outcomes for companion rats (Rattus norvegicus) diagnosed with lymphoma.

ANIMALS

All rats that presented to the exotics service and underwent postmortem examination during the time period of 2008 through 2020 were evaluated.

PROCEDURES

The medical records of 35 rats were evaluated for an ante- or postmortem diagnosis of lymphoma. Cases with a diagnosis of lymphoma were further reviewed for signalment, presenting complaint, clinical signs observed on physical exam, diagnostic testing performed, and treatments administered. Postmortem gross and histologic findings were reviewed.

RESULTS

7 out of 35 rats were diagnosed with lymphoma, either ante-mortem or postmortem. The most common presenting complaint that was present in all rats with lymphoma was respiratory abnormalities. Five out of 7 rats had radiographs performed, all of which had abnormalities noted in the thoracic cavity including pulmonary nodules, cranial mediastinal widening, or alteration to the cardiac silhouette. Diagnosis via cytologic aspirates was performed in 2 cases and each was diagnostic for lymphoma; however, even with treatment, survival time following initiation of chemotherapy was short (less than or equal to 24 days). The definitive diagnosis in the remainder of the cases was via necropsy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggest that lymphoma is a common neoplastic disease in rats and a thorough diagnostic work-up is indicated in any rat that presents for general malaise or respiratory signs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To document clinicopathologic findings in domestic rabbits with liver lobe torsion and identify prognostic factors.

ANIMALS

82 rabbits.

PROCEDURE

Medical records of 4 institutions were reviewed to identify rabbits with an antemortem diagnosis of liver lobe torsion that were examined between 2010 and 2020.

RESULTS

The prevalence of liver lobe torsion was 0.7% (82/11,402). In all 82 rabbits, the diagnosis was made by means of abdominal ultrasonography. Fifty (60.1%) rabbits underwent liver lobectomy, 23 (28%) received medical treatment alone, and 9 (10.9%) were euthanized or died on presentation. Overall, 32 (39%) rabbits died within 7 days of initial presentation and 50 (61%) survived. Seven-day survival rate did not differ significantly between medical treatment alone and surgical treatment. However, median survival time following medical treatment (530 days) was shorter than that following surgical treatment (1,452 days). Six of 14 rabbits had evidence of systemic inflammatory disease on necropsy. Rabbits with right liver lobe torsion were less likely to survive for 7 days than were those with caudate torsions (P = 0.046; OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.04 to 11.3). Rabbits with moderate to severe anemia were less likely to survive for 7 days than were rabbits that were not anemic or had mild anemia (P = 0.006; OR, 4.41; 95% CI, 1.55 to 12.51). Other factors associated with a decreased 7-day survival rate were high heart rate at admission (P = 0.013) and additional days without defecation after admission (P < 0.001). Use of tramadol was associated with an increased survival rate (P = 0.018).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The prognosis for rabbits with liver lobe torsions was more guarded than previously described. Rabbits that underwent liver lobectomy had a longer median survival time than did rabbits that only received medical treatment.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association