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Abstract

Urolithiasis is the most common cause of urinary tract disease in small ruminants and has significant economic and production impacts worldwide. Urolithiasis is multifactorial in origin and generally begins with the formation of cystoliths followed by urethral obstruction. The condition is most common in males. Clinical signs are variable depending on the severity of the obstruction. Uroliths can be calcium, struvite, or silicate based; however, struvite and amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate are the most common urolith types observed in small ruminants. Although urethral process (vermiform appendage) amputation is widely considered the first line of treatment, reobstruction is common within the first 36 hours. Surgical interventions such as temporary tube cystostomy, perineal urethrostomy (PU), modified proximal perineal urethrostomy, vesico-preputial anastomosis (VPA), and urinary bladder marsupialization (BM) are reported to carry an improved prognosis for long-term survival. PU carries a lower proportion of long-term success (> 12-month survival time) when compared with VPA and BM. Stoma stricture and urine scald are the most commonly observed surgical complications. Currently, the literature provides minimal direction for clinician decision-making in managing these cases while accounting for patient history, client financial ability, composition of calculi, and potential treatment complications. Small ruminant urinary obstructions are challenging and complicated conditions to treat, due to their multifactorial etiology, ruminant urogenital anatomy, and the variety of imperfect treatment options available. The purpose of this article this article is to provide veterinary practitioners with decision trees to guide management and treatment of urolithiasis in small ruminants.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the outcome of canine pyometra surgeries performed at referral hospitals with those performed at community clinics (outpatient settings), and to evaluate factors that impact outcome.

ANIMALS

133 client-owned dogs with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) at 2 community clinics or 2 referral hospitals between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2019.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective electronic medical record search was used to identify eligible cases. Data about patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed for factors that could have impacted outcome.

RESULTS

Eighty-three dogs were treated at referral hospitals; 50 dogs were treated at community clinics. Survival to hospital discharge for all dogs was 97% (129/133) and did not differ between treatment facility type. Dogs treated at both types of facilities were similar in age, body weight, and clinical signs. Median duration between diagnosis and OHE was significantly shorter for dogs treated at referral hospitals (0 day; range, 0 to 0.7 days) versus community clinics (1.0 day; range, 0 to 14.0 days); however, delay was not related to survival to hospital discharge. Duration of hospitalization did not impact survival to hospital discharge nor survival for at least 1 week after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that OHE for pyometra in dogs has a good outcome and that, although prompt surgical treatment remains a goal, in cases where limitations to performing surgery exist, a delay until surgery or discharging patients the same day is still associated with a high degree of success.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 1-year-old primiparous female Boer cross goat was presented to the J. T. Vaughn Large Animal Teaching Hospital at Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine with a history of prolonged first-stage labor following an otherwise uneventful pregnancy. When checking on the doe, the owner observed visceral organs protruding from the vulva and called the emergency service for assistance.

At the time of presentation, the doe was bright, alert, and responsive. Vital signs included a rectal temperature of 38.5 °C, heart rate of 126 beats per minute, and respiratory rate of 76 breaths per minute. Mucous membranes were pink and

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate feline injection site-associated sarcoma (FISAS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) cells in 3-D hydrogel-based cell cultures to determine chemosensitivity to carboplatin at concentrations comparable to those eluted from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (C-ICSH) beads.

SAMPLE

2 immortalized cell lines, each from a histologically confirmed primary FISAS and FOSCC.

PROCEDURES

Hydrogels (10% wt/vol) were formed via UV exposure from methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin dissolved in PBSS. For each cell line, approximately 100,000 cells were encapsulated per hydrogel. Three cell-seeded 3-D hydrogels were evaluated for each carboplatin concentration (0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 µM) across 3 experiments. Drug efficacy was assessed by luminescence assay 72 hours after treatment. Growth of tumor cells treated with 300 µM or 600 µM carboplatin was evaluated using live-cell morphology imaging and confocal microscopy at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment.

RESULTS

Mean half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for FISAS and FOSCC cells ranged from 123 to 171 µM and 155 to 190 µM, respectively, based on luminescence assay. Viability at 3, 7, and 14 days for both cell lines at 300 µM carboplatin was 50%, 25%, and 5% and at 600 µM carboplatin was 25%, 10%, and < 5%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3-D hydrogel cell culture systems supported growth of feline tumor cells for determination of in vitro chemosensitivity. IC50s of each cell line were within the range of carboplatin concentrations eluted from C-ICSH beads. Cells from FISAS and FOSCC cell lines treated with carboplatin showed dose-dependent and time-dependent decreases in viability.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe patterns of antimicrobial prescriptions for sporadic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs in the United States from 2010 through 2019, including times before and after publication of International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Disease (ISCAID) guidelines.

SAMPLE

461,244 qualifying visits for sporadic UTIs.

PROCEDURES

Veterinary electronic medical records of a private corporation consisting of > 1,000 clinics across the United States were examined to identify canine visits for potential sporadic UTI between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Proportions of antimicrobial prescriptions were graphed by month and year to identify changes in prescription patterns over time. Interrupted time series analysis was performed for the aminopenicillins.

RESULTS

A total of 461,244 qualifying visits were examined, with 389,949 (85%) of these resulting in at least 1 antimicrobial prescription. Over the 10-year period, the proportion of visits resulting in no antimicrobial prescription increased (14% in 2010 to 19.7% in 2019). Proportions of prescriptions for amoxicillin (38% to 48%) and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (2.5% to 10%) also increased. Log-linear regression supported that changes in proportions of amoxicillin and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid prescriptions occurred following the 2011 ISCAID guidelines publication, with the proportion of amoxicillin prescriptions increasing by 13% per year (95% CI, 12% to 14%; P < 0.01) and the proportion of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid prescriptions increasing by 0.5% per year (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.8%; P < 0.01). Use of fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins remained constant.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggest that efforts to guide antimicrobial use in veterinary clinical practice are having positive effects in this private veterinary company, though continued efforts are warranted.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Pet weight may be difficult for veterinary professionals to address with clients, particularly when pets are overweight or obese. The objective of this study was to characterize the communication processes and content of weight-related conversations occurring between veterinary professionals and clients.

SAMPLE

Audio-video recordings of 917 veterinarian-client-patient interactions involving a random sample of 60 veterinarians and a convenience sample of clients.

PROCEDURES

Companion animal veterinarians in southern Ontario, Canada, were randomly recruited, and interactions with their clients were audio-video recorded. Interactions were reviewed for mentions of weight, then further analyzed by means of a researcher-generated coding framework to provide a comprehensive assessment of communication specific to weight-related interactions.

RESULTS

463 of 917 (50.5%) veterinary-client-patient interactions contained an exchange involving the mention of a single patient’s (dog or cat) weight and were included in final analysis. Of the 463 interactions, 150 (32.4%) involved a discussion of obesity for a single patient. Of these, 43.3% (65/150) included a weight management recommendation from the veterinary team, and 28% (42/150) provided clients with a reason for pursuing weight management.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings illustrate opportunities to optimize obesity communication to improve the health and wellbeing of veterinary patients.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 3-year-old 32.2-kg castrated male Labrador Retriever was presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation because of anorexia and a painful left eye. The patient was evaluated by the primary veterinarian 4 days prior because of blepharospasm of the same eye with no known history of trauma. Results of fluorescein staining were negative, and the primary veterinarian empirically prescribed neomycin-polymyxin-B-dexamethasone ophthalmic ointment to be applied to the affected eye twice daily and oral administration of amoxicillin trihydrate-clavulanate potassium (12 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and prednisone (0.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h). The patient did

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 15-year-old 2.35-kg spayed female Siamese cat was referred because of a history of chronic intermittent vomiting that had progressed over a 7-month period from twice weekly to vomiting daily. The patient had a 1-month history of diarrhea, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, and diffuse muscle wasting. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was presumptively diagnosed 5 years earlier and was treated with a gastrointestinal supportive diet and prednisolone (0.75 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), which moderately improved the frequency of vomiting. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, and measurement of thyroxine concentration were performed, and the abnormalities included mild anemia (30% [reference

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 12-year-old 5.66-kg male green iguana (Iguana iguana) was referred with a history of left hind limb monoparesis and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the right hind limb femoral pores. A right hind limb mass had been first noticed 11 months earlier, and the referring veterinarian had surgically removed it twice, with the most recent surgery having been performed 1.5 months earlier. For both procedures, anesthesia had been induced with alfaxalone (10 mg/kg, IM) and maintained with isoflurane, and enrofloxacin (11 mg/kg, SC) had been administered. Histologic examination of removed tissues indicated that the mass was a

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association