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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize clinical findings and outcomes for horses with heel bulb lacerations.

ANIMALS

Medical records of a teaching hospital were reviewed to identify horses treated for heel bulb lacerations between February 2004 and October 2018. Long-term outcome was assessed by telephone communication with owners. Results were analyzed to determine association with clinical outcome.

RESULTS

31 mares and 31 geldings of various ages, breeds, and uses were evaluated. Thirty-six horses had a wound of 0 to 2 days’ duration, and 17 horses had a wound of > 2 days’ duration. Horses with a wound duration of < 2 days had a significantly greater likelihood of a higher outcome score (P = .025; OR = 7.08; 95% CI = 1.28% to 39.08%). Synovial communication with the wound was confirmed in 21 of 62 (33.9%) horses. One synovial structure was involved in 17 horses, and > 1 synovial structure was involved in 4 horses. Fifty-nine horses survived to discharge, and follow-up information was available for 18 (30.5%) horses. Of the horses available for follow-up, 78% returned to the previous level of work (14/18). Degree of lameness at presentation, degree of wound contamination, treatment prior to presentation, treatment with foot casting, and involvement of synovial structures were not found to be significantly associated with clinical outcome.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggest that horses with heel bulb lacerations have a good prognosis for survival and a favorable prognosis for return to work. Clinical application of additional findings needs further investigation before clinical relevance can be ascertained.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether the use of a force-activated separation device (FASD) lowers the incidence risk of peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) complications in hospitalized dogs.

ANIMALS

367 dogs that were hospitalized and received IV fluids between January 11 and March 25, 2021.

PROCEDURES

A prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Dogs hospitalized and receiving IV fluids for at least 24 hours were randomized to the FASD group or control group. PIVCs were placed following a standardized protocol. Dogs in the FASD group had the FASD device attached to their PIVC according to manufacturer instructions. For both groups, all PIVC complications were documented, and each complication was classified as extravasation, phlebitis, dislodgement, occlusion, or line breakage.

RESULTS

Results from 367 dogs (FASD group = 180, control group = 187) underwent analysis. The proportion of PIVC complications was significantly (P = .004) lower for the FASD group (8.9% [16/180]) versus the control group (24.6% [46/187]). Following adjustment for differences in hospitalization time, the odds of a dog in the FASD group having a PIVC complication was approximately one-third the odds of those in the control group (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.63; P = .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that the use of a FASD in hospitalized dogs receiving IV fluids is warranted to lower the incidence of PIVC complications and may also limit patient discomfort, owner expense, and staff time devoted to managing PIVC complications. Further research investigating its use in cats and other species should be considered.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe outcomes of small- and toy-breed dogs with a congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IHPSS) treated with percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE).

ANIMALS

20 small- and toy-breed dogs with an IHPSS.

PROCEDURES

All dogs underwent CT angiography for shunt evaluation as well as PTCE. Medical records were reviewed for pertinent data, and owners and primary veterinarians were contacted for long-term follow-up information.

RESULTS

Dogs ranged from 1.5 to 10.0 kg (mean ± SD, 6.32 ± 2.57 kg) in weight. The equipment used to perform PTCE tended to be smaller than that previously described for larger breed dogs. Intra- and postoperative complication rates were 20% (4/20) and 5% (1/20), respectively, and included hypotension, bradycardia, hypercapnia, ventricular premature contractions, hypothermia, and regurgitation. Dogs were discharged a median of 3 days (range, 1 to 3 days) after surgery, and all dogs survived to discharge. Clinical signs resolved in 95% (19/20) of the dogs a median of 21 days after the procedure. One- and 2-year survival rates were 92%. Three dogs had died by the time of data collection; 2 of these dogs died of causes related to the IHPSS 267 and 1,178 days, respectively, after the procedure.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Percutaneous transvenous coil embolization was a safe and effective option for treatment of IHPSS in small- and toy-breed dogs and offered a minimally invasive alternative to open surgical techniques. Complication and survival rates in this cohort were similar to or better than those reported in previous studies evaluating PTCE and open surgical techniques for treatment of IHPSS in dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To profile Streptococcus canis isolates obtained from corneal ulcers in dogs.

ANIMALS

10 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify dogs diagnosed with ulcerative keratitis by a veterinary ophthalmologist and having a positive corneal culture for S canis during the year 2020. For each case, clinical findings and outcome were determined, antimicrobial resistance and sensitivity panels were summarized, whole genome sequencing was performed, and isolates were typed using multi-locus sequence typing and genome-based proteome phylogenetic analysis.

RESULTS

10 S canis isolates were included from dogs diagnosed with ulcerative keratitis. Dogs were either treated surgically via keratectomy and conjunctival grafting (n = 6) or treated medically (4). Three of 10 corneas failed to heal and required enucleation (2/6 conjunctival grafts and 1/4 medically managed corneal ulcers). All three corneal ulcers that failed to heal were associated with S canis sequence type (ST) 43. Sequence types identified from successfully treated cases included ST8 (n = 1), ST50 (1), ST2 (2), ST27 (1), and ST15 (1). One ST43 isolate was obtained from a dog that healed following a conjunctival graft, however this was the only dog that received an oral antibiotic in addition to topical antibiotics.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Based on this small dataset, S canis ST43 may be associated with increased virulence and contribute to conjunctival graft failure and progressive corneal collagenolysis. The postoperative administration of an oral antimicrobial may protect against conjunctival graft rejection in dogs specifically due to S canis ST43.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Describe clinical features, treatment, and outcomes in dogs with deep neck infections.

ANIMALS

19 dogs undergoing surgical treatment of deep neck infections from January 1, 2015, through December 31, 2020.

PROCEDURES

Retrospective record review was conducted, with data collected including clinical signs; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histopathologic findings; and follow-up. Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon rank sum were used to compare variables to NLR.

RESULTS

All dogs had cervical swelling, and 9 were febrile. On CT, a distinct mass or abscess (7/13) or abscessed lymph node (4/13) was common, with contrast enhancement (10/13), fluid tracking (8/13), and displacement of the trachea, pharynx, or larynx (6/13) also frequently seen. Foreign material was suspected on CT for 4 dogs and was identified at surgery or histopathology for 4 dogs, only 1 of which was suspected on CT. Histopathology most commonly revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation (14/15). Increasing NLR was moderately correlated to a decreased duration of clinical signs before presentation (ρ = –0.548; P = .035) and an increased length of hospitalization (ρ = 0.645; P = .009). Bacterial culture was submitted for all dogs, and polymicrobial infections were common (8/19). Broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials were commonly prescribed. Change in antimicrobial treatment based on culture was uncommon (3/19). All dogs survived to hospital discharge; 18 dogs with long-term follow-up had complete resolution of clinical signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CT was useful to plan for surgery, and surgical treatment resulted in resolution of clinical signs in all dogs with long-term follow-up available. Empirical antimicrobial treatment, such as amoxicillin–clavulanic acid or ampicillin-sulbactam, should be considered.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To better understand the experiences and perceptions of veterinary professionals in the US responding to suspected cases of animal cruelty.

SAMPLE

1,027 US veterinary professionals.

PROCEDURES

An anonymous survey was distributed via social media and veterinary professional associations between October 15 and November 15, 2020.

RESULTS

Responses indicated that more cases of suspected animal cruelty were seen by those who reported having had cruelty training and in workplaces with emergency intake or a relationship with law enforcement. In addition, suspected cases were more likely to be reported to authorities by respondents who indicated there was a workplace policy for handling cruelty cases and by individuals who indicated that they were aware that they were mandated reporters.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The important needs for veterinary professionals in relation to animal cruelty are more training to recognize animal cruelty, workplace policies for reporting, and knowledge of reporting laws.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association