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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Investigate long-term complications, survival times, general health and quality of life (QoL) outcomes, and longevity in female dogs and cats (bitches and queens, respectively) following hospital discharge after ovariohysterectomy (OHE) for pyometra.

ANIMALS

306 pet-owner–completed surveys and corresponding medical records for 234 bitches and 72 queens treated with OHE for pyometra at the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Hospital between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.

PROCEDURES

A telephone and online survey was conducted to gather data about pet owners’ perception of pet health and QoL following OHE for pyometra, and potential associations between survey results and medical record data were evaluated. Median survival time at a given age at OHE for pyometra was calculated with the use of maximum likelihood estimation of a survival-time regression model.

RESULTS

72 of the 121 (60%) eligible owners of queens and 234 of the 390 (60%) eligible owners of bitches completed the survey. Most owners reported that at the time of the survey, their pet’s health and QoL were better or the same as before pyometra. Reported health and QoL outcomes were similar for pets > 8 versus ≤ 8 years of age.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicated that bitches and queens undergoing OHE for pyometra at older ages and without other severe health issues can expect to live their full life span. Veterinarians in private practice could expect similar outcomes.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A dairy herd of 55 Holstein-Friesian cross cattle from Cantabria, Northern Spain (Atlantic climate) had a sudden onset of severe clinical signs including cardiac arrhythmia. The herd was managed in 2 groups according to the age and stage of production, with 34 adult cows housed and 21 yearlings grazing pasture. Only the housed cows were affected, with 100% morbidity and 7 deaths within 24 hours of the onset of signs in the first cow affected.

Clinical and Gross Findings

On clinical examination, the most striking and consistent finding in all the animals was cardiac arrhythmia, characterized by irregular heart

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 3-year-old American Quarter Horse gelding was presented to the University of Illinois Equine Medicine and Surgery service with a 3-day history of lethargy, facial edema, and soft tissue swelling of the distal limbs. The horse was presented in the fall, and all other horses in the herd were clinically normal.

Clinical and Clinicopathologic Findings

Upon presentation, the gelding was quiet but responsive with a rectal temperature of 38.6 °C (reference interval, 37.5 to 38.5 °C). Hyperemic mucous membranes, tachycardia (80 beats/min; reference interval, 28 to 40 beats/min), and tachypnea (40 breaths/min; reference interval, 8 to 15 breaths/min) with

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Aging is the single most important cause of disease, disability, and death in adult dogs. Contrary to the common view of aging as a mysterious and inevitable natural event, it is more usefully understood as a set of complex but comprehensible biological processes that are highly conserved across species. Although the phenotypic expression of these processes is variable, there are consistent patterns both within and between species.

The purpose of this feature is to describe the patterns currently recognized in the physical and behavioral manifestations of aging in the dog and how these impact the health and welfare of companion dogs and their human caregivers. Important gaps in our knowledge of the canine aging phenotype will be identified, and current research efforts to better characterize aging in the dog will be discussed. This will help set the context for future efforts to develop clinical assessments and treatments to mitigate the negative impact of aging on dogs and humans.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the agreement between 3 point-of-care (POC) devices and a reference laboratory for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration in African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) whole blood (WB) and plasma samples and the precision of each POC device for measuring β-HB concentration in plasma samples.

ANIMALS

48 healthy African penguins.

PROCEDURES

Blood was obtained from the right jugular vein of each penguin, and β-HB concentration was measured on each POC device using fresh WB and heparinized plasma and at the reference laboratory using plasma. β-HB concentration was measured in plasma on each POC device.

RESULTS

All devices overestimated serum β-HB concentrations on average by 0.46 mM relative to the reference laboratory. WB samples had less error than plasma for meters A and C. Meter A had the lowest total error observed (26.4%) and the lowest mean difference (0.19 mmol/L) relative to the reference laboratory. Controlling for other factors, the magnitude of disagreement was not affected by sex, age, packed cell volume, or serum total solids concentration.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

WB, not plasma, should be used for measurement of β-HB concentration on the POC meters tested. Meter A showed good correlation with the reference laboratory for WB. The use of POC devices for the measurement of β-HB concentration may be acceptable when laboratory analyzers are not available. Further research is needed for clinical application and the diagnostic value of POC meters compared with reference laboratories.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine if prazosin administration decreased the rate of recurrent urethral obstruction (rUO) before hospital discharge and within 14 days.

ANIMALS

388 cats with urethral obstruction.

PROCEDURES

Veterinarians who either always or never prescribed prazosin (generally, 0.5 to 1 mg, PO, q 12 h for 14 days) were recruited to complete observational surveys. Patient data and characteristics of relieving the obstruction, including perception of a gritty feel within urethra or difficulty unobstructing the cat, were recorded. The rate of development of rUO before hospital discharge and by day 14 was compared between cats that received or did not receive prazosin with the Fisher exact test. Other variables were similarly compared between cats with and without rUO.

RESULTS

302 (78%) cats received prazosin, while 86 (22%) did not. There was no association between prazosin administration and risk of rUO prior to discharge, with 34 of 302 (11.3%) cats receiving prazosin and 5 or 86 (5.8%) not receiving prazosin developing rUO. Within 14 days, a significantly higher proportion of prazosin-treated cats (73/302 [24%]) developed an rUO, compared with the proportion of non–prazosin-treated cats (and 11/86 [13%]). The perception of a “gritty feeling urethra” or difficulty of performing the catheterization was associated with increased risk of rUO.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Prazosin administration increased the likelihood of rUO by 14 days; ongoing investigation of other therapies to decrease rUO in cats is warranted. Without specific indications, the use of prazosin for the prevention of rUO should be discouraged.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Dear readers,

It is my pleasure to co-welcome you to the “Urogenital Health in Your Patients” JAVMA supplement! We are pleased to present you with state-of-the-art studies focusing on the upper and lower urinary tract in multiple species.

Every day we must answer the same question, in every patient: what do I do? The answer is often uncertain. However, the reports we bring you attempt to add some clarity. What works and what does not? What are the experts doing, what would they recommend, and, most importantly, what should I do for this animal here in front of

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine (1) the relationship, (2) the difference, and (3) the diagnostic discordance between blood total calcium concentration (tCa) and ionized calcium concentration (iCa) in a population of client-owned chelonian patients.

ANIMALS

161 consecutively admitted client-owned chelonians.

PROCEDURES

Results for tCa, iCa, and other variables were extracted from records. Bound calcium concentration (tCa – iCa) was calculated. General linear models were developed to evaluate factors affecting tCa, iCa and bound calcium concentrations. Diagnostic discordance between tCa and iCa was assessed.

RESULTS

iCa decreased with increasing albumin concentration, it was not influenced by sex, and it was lower in chelonians with disorders of the reproductive tract than in those with disorders of the endocrine/hemopoietic and urinary systems. Total calcium and bound calcium concentrations increased with increasing albumin concentration; they were higher in females and in chelonians with disorders of the reproductive tract. Of the 161 chelonians, 93 (57.7%; 95% CI, 49.7% to 65.5%) would have had a different diagnosis of calcium status based on tCa and iCa results (ie, diagnostic discordance). A 2.2 mmol/L cutoff value for bound calcium could differentiate chelonians with and without disorders of the reproductive tract with a sensitivity (95% CI) of 81.8% (64.5% to 93.0%) and specificity of 76.4% (68.0% to 83.5%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

tCa and iCa were related and were associated with albumin concentrations in chelonians. Evaluation of tCa or iCa alone is likely to result in underdiagnosis of alterations of the calcium status. Calculation of bound calcium concentration could help identify chelonians with reproductive disorders.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate risk factors, clinical features, and prognostic indicators in guinea pigs with urolithiasis.

ANIMALS

158 guinea pigs with urolithiasis.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of an exotics animal specialty service were searched, identifying guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Signalment, clinical data, and outcomes were recorded. Variables of interest were analyzed for statistical associations with outcome.

RESULTS

Overall, 54.4% (86/158) of animals survived to discharge. Median survival time was 177 days. Females (53.2%; 84/158) were more common than males (46.8%; 74/158). Males were presented younger (mean age, 3.64 years) than females (4.41 years). In 81 of 154 (52.5%) cases, animals were presented with primary urinary concerns, while 73 (47.5%) presented for nonurinary primary concerns. Females more commonly presented with distal urinary tract urolithiasis (63/84; 75%) but fared better overall with a longer median survival time (1,149 days) than males (59 days). Surgical intervention was not a risk factor for nonsurvival; however, increased age (> 4.1 years), male sex, anorexia, weight loss, and lower rectal temperature (< 37.2 °C) on presentation were associated with nonsurvival. Reoccurrence was noted in 13.9% (22/158) of cases, at an average of 284 days.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Urolithiasis should always be considered a differential diagnosis for any unwell guinea pig. In particular, distal urinary tract urolithiasis should be considered in females. A poorer prognosis was associated with older, male guinea pigs, and those displaying anorexia, weight loss, and hypothermia. The need for surgical intervention should not confer a poorer outcome. Further studies are needed to determine specific risk factors and identify possible preventative measures.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the rate of complications associated with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and examine whether cat characteristics or surgeon experience level were associated with complications.

ANIMALS

15,927 cats that underwent ovariohysterectomy with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018.

PROCEDURES

Data were extracted from electronic and paper medical records. Complications were coded by a veterinarian blinded to surgeon experience level. Complications (pedicle drop or tear, pedicle hemorrhage, and pedicle-related death) were summarized as counts and percentages. Univariate associations between cat characteristics (eg, age, weight, reproductive status, and ownership) and surgeon experience level (clinic veterinarian vs training veterinarian or veterinary student) and each outcome were estimated separately for veterinarian and student training clinics.

RESULTS

A pedicle drop or tear occurred in 0.3% (n = 49) of cats and was significantly more likely among veterinary students. Most (41/49 [84%]) pedicle drops and tears did not result in hemorrhage. Only 19 of 15,927 (0.12%) cats had pedicle-related hemorrhage, and in all instances, hemorrhage was corrected intraoperatively without serious complication or death. Cat characteristics and surgeon experience level were not related to pedicle hemorrhage.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results support previous evidence that the ovarian pedicle tie procedure is safe in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy when performed by experienced surgeons or novice surgeons under supervision. Given the reduced anesthetic time associated with the procedure, the ovarian pedicle tie should be considered an acceptable standard practice in all practice settings.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association