• 1.

    Aroch I, Markovics A, Mazaki-Tovi M, et al. Spirocercosis in dogs in Israel: a retrospective case-control study (2004–2009). Vet Parasitol. 2015;211(3-4):234240. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.05.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Bailey WS. Spirocerca lupi: a continuing inquiry. J Parasitol. 1972;58(1):322.

  • 3.

    Brodey RS, Thomson RG, Sayer PD, Eugster B. Spirocerca lupi infection in dogs in Kenya. Vet Parasitol. 1977;3(1):4959. doi:10.1016/0304-4017(77)90007-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Du Toit CA, Scholtz CH, Hyman WB. Prevalence of the dog nematode Spirocerca lupi in populations of its intermediate dung beetle host in the Tshwane (Pretoria) Metropole, South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2008;75(4):315321. doi:10.4102/ojvr.v75i4.107

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Giannelli A, Baldassarre V, Ramos RAN, et al. Spirocerca lupi infection in a dog from southern Italy: an “old fashioned” disease. Parasitol Res. 2014;113(6):23912394. doi:10.1007/s00436-014-3912-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Mazaki-Tovi M, Baneth G, Aroch I, et al. Canine spirocercosis: clinical, diagnostic, pathologic, and epidemiologic characteristics. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107(3):235250. doi:10.1016/s0304-4017(02)00118-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Meshgi B, Eslami A, Bahonar A, Kharrazian-Moghadam M, Gerami-Sadeghian A. Prevalence of parasitic infections in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Iran. Iran J Vet Res. 2009;10(4):387391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Mylonakis ME, Koutinas AF, Liapi MV, Saridomichelakis MN, Rallis TS. A comparison of the prevalence of Spirocerca lupi in three groups of dogs with different life and hunting styles. J Helminthol. 2001;75(4):359361.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Dvir E, Kirberger RM, Mukorera V, van der Merwe LL, Clift SJ. Clinical differentiation between dogs with benign and malignant spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155(1-2):8088. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.04.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Pazzi P, Kavkovsky A, Shipov A, Segev G, Dvir E. Spirocerca lupi induced oesophageal neoplasia: predictors of surgical outcome. Vet Parasitol. 2018;250:7177. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.11.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Ranen E, Lavy E, Aizenberg I, Perl S, Harrus S. Spirocercosis-associated esophageal sarcomas in dogs. A retrospective study of 17 cases (1997–2003). Vet Parasitol. 2004;119(2-3):209221. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2003.10.023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    van der Merwe LL, Kirberger RM, Clift S, Williams M, Keller N, Naidoo V. Spirocerca lupi infection in the dog: a review. Vet J. 2008;176(3):294309. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.02.032

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Dvir E, Kirberger RM, Malleczek D. Radiographic and computed tomographic changes and clinical presentation of spirocercosis in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2001;42(2):119129. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2001.tb00914.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Georgi ME, Han H, Hartrick DW. Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1809) nodule in the rectum of a dog from Connecticut. Cornell Vet. 1980;70(1):4249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Harrus S, Harmelin A, Markovics A, Bark H. Spirocerca lupi infection in the dog: aberrant migration. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1996;32(2):125130. doi:10.5326/15473317-32-2-125

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Rojas A, Segev G, Markovics A, Aroch I, Baneth G. Detection and quantification of Spirocerca lupi by HRM qPCR in fecal samples from dogs with spirocercosis. Parasit Vectors. 2017;10(1):435. doi:10.1186/s13071-017-2374-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Chai O, Shelef I, Brenner O, Dogadkin O, Aroch I, Shamir MH. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intramedullary spirocercosis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2008;49(5):456459. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2008.00407.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Chai O, Yas E, Brenner O, et al. Clinical characteristics of Spirocerca lupi migration in the spinal cord. Vet Parasitol. 2018;253:1621. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.02.025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Du Plessis CJ, Keller N, Millward IR. Aberrant extradural spinal migration of Spirocerca lupi: four dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48(5):275278. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2006.00262.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Dvir E, Perl S, Loeb E, et al. Spinal intramedullary aberrant Spirocerca lupi migration in 3 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21(4):860864. doi:10.1892/0891-6640(2007)21[860:siaslm]2.0.co;2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Ruggeri M, Rojas A, Chai O, et al. Detection of intraspinal Spirocerce lupi in canine cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. J Comp Pathol. 2019;170:105112. doi:10.1016/j.jcpa.2019.05.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Berry WL. Spirocerca lupi oesophageal granulomas in 7 dogs: resolution after treatment with doramectin. J Vet Intern Med. 2000;14(6):609612. doi:10.1892/0891-6640(2000)014<0609:legidr>2.3.co;2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Lavy E, Aroch I, Bark H, et al. Evaluation of doramectin for the treatment of experimental canine spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2002;109(1-2):6573. doi:10.1016/s0304-4017(02)00250-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Lobetti R. Successful resolution of oesophageal spirocercosis in 20 dogs following daily treatment with oral doramectin. Vet J. 2012;193(1):277278. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Segev G, Rojas A, Lavy E, Yaffe M, Aroch I, Baneth G. Evaluation of a spot-on imidacloprid-moxidectin formulation (Advocate) for the treatment of naturally occurring esophageal spirocercosis in dogs: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Parasit Vectors. 2018;11(1):127. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-2731-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Peregrine AS. Spirocerca lupi in small animals. Merck Veterinary Manual. Accessed October 14, 2022. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/digestive-system/gastrointestinal-parasites-of-small-animals/spirocerca-lupi-in-small-animals

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Bartanusz V, Jezova D, Alajajian B, Digicaylioglu M. The blood-spinal cord barrier: morphology and clinical implication. Ann Neurol. 2011;70(2):194206. doi:10.1002/ana.22421

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Roulet A, Puel O, Gesta S, et al. MDR1-deficient genotype in Collie dogs hypersensitive to the P-glycoprotein substrate ivermectin. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;460(2-3):8591.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Edwards G. Ivermectin: does P-glycoprotein play a role in neurotoxicity. Filaria J. 2003;2(suppl 1):S8. doi:10.1186/1475-2883-2-S1-S8

  • 30.

    Klainbart S, Chai O, Vaturi R, Rapoport K, Aroch I, Shamir MH. Nematode eggs observed in cytology of cerebrospinal fluid diagnostic for intramedullary Spirocerca lupi spinal cord migration. Vet Clin Pathol. 2018;47(1):138141. doi:10.1111/vcp.12560

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Bennett PF, Allan FJ, Guilford WG, Julian AF, Johnston CG. Idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in Rottweiler dogs: three cases (1992–1997). Aust Vet J. 1997;75(11):786789. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1997.tb15651.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Lane LV, Meinkoth JH, Brunker J, et al. Disseminated protothecosis diagnosed by evaluation of CSF in a dog. Vet Clin Pathol. 2012;41(1):147152. doi:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00395.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Olivier AK, Parkes JD, Flaherty HA, Kline KL, Haynes JS. Idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis in a Rottweiler dog. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22(4):646648. doi:10.1177/104063871002200427

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Salvadori C, Baroni M, Arispici M, Cantile C. Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological findings in a case of canine idiopathic eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48(8):466469. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2007.00400.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Smith-Maxie LL, Parent JP, Rand J, Wilcock BP, Norris AM. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and clinical outcome of eight dogs with eosinophilic meningoencephalomyelitis. J Vet Intern Med. 1989;3(3):167174. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.1989.tb03093.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Tyler DE, Lorenz MD, Blue JL, Munnell JF, Chandler FW. Disseminated protothecosis with central nervous system involvement in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1980;176(10 pt 1):987993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Windsor RC, Sturges BK, Vernau KM, Vernau W. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23(2):275281. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0276.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Papich MG. Table of common drugs: approximate dosages. In: Bonagura JD, ed. Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII, Small Animal Practice. WB Saunders Co; 2000:12391264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Gokbulut C, Karademir U, Boyacioglu M, McKellar QA. Comparative plasma dispositions of ivermectin and doramectin following subcutaneous and oral administration in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135(3-4):347354. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2005.10.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Van Amstel SR, Portmann AB, Doherty TJ, Newman SJ, Yarbrough JW, Cox S. Ivermectin concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration to healthy llamas. J Camelid Sci. 2019;2:4149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Van Amstel SR, Miller AJ. Ivermectin levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid from healthy llamas and cases with neurological signs. Abstract in: Proceedings of the 21st Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum. American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine; 2003:944945.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Edwards G. Ivermectin: does P-glycoprotein play a role in neurotoxicity. Filaria J. 2003;2(suppl 1):S8. doi:10.1186/1475-2883-2-S1-S8

  • 43.

    Jeffery ND. Corticosteroid use in small animal neurology. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2014;44(6):10591074. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.07.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Goldshmit Y, Lythgo N, Galea MP, Turnley AM. Treadmill training after spinal cord hemisection in mice promotes axonal sprouting and synapse formation and improves motor recovery. J Neurotrauma. 2008;25(5):449465. doi:10.1089/neu.2007.0392

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Battistuzzo CR, Callister RJ, Callister R, Galea MP. A systematic review of exercise training to promote locomotor recovery in animal models of spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29(8):16001613. doi:10.1089/neu.2011.2199

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of a treatment protocol in dogs with intraspinal spirocercosis

Nimrod AsiagVeterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
Veterinary Specialist Referral Tipul Nimratz, Ben Shemen, Israel

Search for other papers by Nimrod Asiag in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Orit ChaiVeterinary Specialist Referral Tipul Nimratz, Ben Shemen, Israel

Search for other papers by Orit Chai in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Sapir YodovnerVeterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Search for other papers by Sapir Yodovner in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BSc
,
Marco RuggeriVeterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Search for other papers by Marco Ruggeri in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Kira RapaportVeterinary Specialist Referral Tipul Nimratz, Ben Shemen, Israel

Search for other papers by Kira Rapaport in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Gad BanethVeterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Search for other papers by Gad Baneth in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Yaarit Nachum-BialaVeterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Search for other papers by Yaarit Nachum-Biala in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Lilach KonstantinVeterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Search for other papers by Lilach Konstantin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Alicia RojasUniversity of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica

Search for other papers by Alicia Rojas in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Ori BrennerWeitzman Institution of Science, Israel

Search for other papers by Ori Brenner in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Yaron BruchimVeterinary Specialist Referral Tipul Nimratz, Ben Shemen, Israel

Search for other papers by Yaron Bruchim in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
, and
Merav H. ShamirVeterinary Teaching Hospital, Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

Search for other papers by Merav H. Shamir in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficiency and safety of a doramectin-based treatment protocol in dogs affected by intraspinal spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi).

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs that were admitted to a veterinary hospital during 2021 to 2022 with acute onset of neurological signs and diagnosed with intraspinal spirocercosis. All dogs underwent complete neurological evaluation, CSF analysis, PCR confirmation of CNS S lupi infection, and follow-up evaluation of at least 6 months.

PROCEDURES

Upon diagnosis, dogs were treated with doramectin at a dose of 400 μg/kg, SC, q 24 h for 3 consecutive days, followed by the same dose once a week for 6 weeks. Prednisone was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h and tapered every 3 days. Antimicrobial clindamycin was administered at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 7 days to reduce the risk of secondary spinal cord infection. Short- and long-term outcomes (1 week to 56 months) were recorded.

RESULTS

8 dogs fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 7 of which presented with neurological deficits and 1 with cervical pain. Initiation of treatment was associated with stopping the deterioration in 7 of 8 dogs. Seven dogs improved and 6 recovered ambulation. One dog was euthanized due to lack of improvement. Six of the recovered dogs were still ataxic on the last follow-up examination at 6 to 56 months. No adverse effects of the drug were noted.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Frequent administration of doramectin was found to be safe and effective in preventing neurological deterioration in dogs with intraspinal spirocercosis.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the efficiency and safety of a doramectin-based treatment protocol in dogs affected by intraspinal spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi).

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs that were admitted to a veterinary hospital during 2021 to 2022 with acute onset of neurological signs and diagnosed with intraspinal spirocercosis. All dogs underwent complete neurological evaluation, CSF analysis, PCR confirmation of CNS S lupi infection, and follow-up evaluation of at least 6 months.

PROCEDURES

Upon diagnosis, dogs were treated with doramectin at a dose of 400 μg/kg, SC, q 24 h for 3 consecutive days, followed by the same dose once a week for 6 weeks. Prednisone was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h and tapered every 3 days. Antimicrobial clindamycin was administered at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 7 days to reduce the risk of secondary spinal cord infection. Short- and long-term outcomes (1 week to 56 months) were recorded.

RESULTS

8 dogs fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 7 of which presented with neurological deficits and 1 with cervical pain. Initiation of treatment was associated with stopping the deterioration in 7 of 8 dogs. Seven dogs improved and 6 recovered ambulation. One dog was euthanized due to lack of improvement. Six of the recovered dogs were still ataxic on the last follow-up examination at 6 to 56 months. No adverse effects of the drug were noted.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Frequent administration of doramectin was found to be safe and effective in preventing neurological deterioration in dogs with intraspinal spirocercosis.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Shamir (merav.shamir@mail.huji.ac.il)