• 1.

    Davies C, Troy GC. Deep mycotic infections in cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1996;32(5):380391. doi:10.5326/15473317-32-5-380

  • 2.

    Brömel C, Sykes JE. Histoplasmosis in dogs and cats. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract. 2005;20(4):227232. doi:10.1053/j.ctsap.2005.07.003

  • 3.

    Brömel C, Greene CE. In: Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. Elsevier/Saunders; 2012:614621.

  • 4.

    Guillot J, Guerin C, Chermette R. Histoplasmosis in animals. In: Seyedmousavi S, De Hoog GS, Guillot J, Verweij PE. Emerging and Epizootic Fungal Infections in Animals. Springer; 2018:115128.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Gionfriddo JR. Feline systemic fungal infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000;30(5):10291050. doi:10.1016/s0195-5616(00)05005-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Clinkenbeard KD, Cowell RL, Tyler RD. Disseminated histoplasmosis in cats: 12 cases (1981–1986). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1987;190(11):14451448.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Reinhart JM, KuKanich KS, Jackson T, Harkin KR. Feline histoplasmosis: fluconazole therapy and identification of potential sources of Histoplasma species exposure. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14(12):841848. doi:10.1177/1098612X12452494

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Johnson LR, Fry MM, Anez KL, Proctor BM, Jang SS. Histoplasmosis infection in two cats from California. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2004;40(2):165169. doi:10.5326/0400165

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Wolf A, Belden M. Feline histoplasmosis: a literature review and retrospective study of 20 new cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1984;20(6):995998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Aulakh HK, Aulakh KS, Troy GC. Feline histoplasmosis: a retrospective study of 22 cases (1986–2009). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2012;48(3):182187. doi:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5758

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Sepúlveda VE, Márquez R, Turissini DA, Goldman WE, Matute DR. Genome sequences reveal cryptic speciation in the human pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum. MBio. 2017;8(6):e01339-17. doi:10.1128/mBio.01339-17

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sepúlveda VE, Williams CL, Goldman WE. Comparison of phylogenetically distinct Histoplasma strains reveals evolutionarily divergent virulence strategies. MBio. 2014;5(4):e01376-14. doi:10.1128/mBio.01376-14

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Morris JM, Sigmund AB, Ward DA, Hendrix DVH. Ocular findings in cats with blastomycosis: 19 cases (1978–2019). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2021;260(4):422427. doi:10.2460/javma.21.03.0135

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Miller PE, Miller LM, Schoster J. Feline blastomycosis: a report of three cases and literature review (1961 to 1988). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1990;26(4):417424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Connolly PA, Durkin MM, Lemonte AM, Hackett EJ, Wheat LJ. Detection of Histoplasma antigen by a quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14(12):15871591. doi:10.1128/CVI.00071-07

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Prevalence of ocular lesions in cats newly diagnosed with histoplasmosis: 55 cases (2015–2022)

Jonathan D. Pucket DVM, MS, DACVO1, Katelyn E. Fentiman DVM, MS, DACVO2, Emily S. McCool DVM, MS, DACVO2, and Andrew S. Hanzlicek DVM, MS, DACVIM2
View More View Less
  • 1 Oklahoma Veterinary Specialists, Tulsa, OK
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the prevalence of ocular lesions in cats with newly diagnosed histoplasmosis.

ANIMALS

55 client-owned domestic cats.

PROCEDURES

As part of this prospective case series, cats diagnosed with histoplasmosis between the years 2015 and 2020 underwent complete ophthalmic examinations by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist prior to the initiation of antifungal treatment. Histoplasmosis was diagnosed by consistent clinical findings and identification of Histoplasma yeast on pathology or by the use of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay to detect Histoplasma antigen in urine.

RESULTS

Of the 55 cats, 45 (82%; 95% CI, 72% to 92%) had signs of active anterior, posterior, or panuveitis. The most common lesions were identified in the posterior portion of the globe and included chorioretinitis and partial retinal detachments (44/55 [80%; 95% CI, 69% to 90%] cats).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Detailed ophthalmic examinations should be performed on all cats with diagnosed or suspected histoplasmosis, as ocular involvement and subsequent vision loss are common.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Pucket (jonathanpucket@gmail.com)