• 1.

    Glasser SA, Charney S, Dervisis NG, et al. Use of an image-guided robotic radiosurgery system for the treatment of canine nonlymphomatous nasal tumors. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2014;50(2):96104. doi:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6024

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Gieger TL, Nolan MW. Linac-based stereotactic radiation therapy for canine non-lymphomatous nasal tumours: 29 cases (2013–2016). Vet Comp Oncol. 2018;16(1):E68E75. doi:10.1111/vco.12334

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Mayer MN, DeWalt JO, Sidhu N, Mauldin GN, Waldner CL. Outcomes and adverse effects associated with stereotactic body radiation therapy in dogs with nasal tumors: 28 cases (2011–2016). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2019;254(5):602612. doi:10.2460/javma.254.5.602

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Fox-Alvarez S, Shiomitsu K, Lejeune AT, Szivek A, Kubicek L. Outcome of intensity-modulated radiation therapy-based stereotactic radiation therapy for treatment of canine nasal carcinomas. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2020;61(3):370378. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/vru.12854

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Nolan MW, Dobson JM. The future of radiotherapy in small animals—should the fractions be coarse or fine? J Small Anim Pract. 2018;59(9):521530. doi:10.1111/jsap.12871

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Adams WM, Bjorling DE, McAnulty JE, Green EM, Forrest LJ, Vail DM. Outcome of accelerated radiotherapy alone or accelerated radiotherapy followed by exenteration of the nasal cavity in dogs with intranasal neoplasia: 53 cases (1990–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227(6):936941. doi:10.2460/javma.2005.227.936

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Lana SE, Dernell WS, Lafferty MH, Withrow SJ, LaRue SM. Use of radiation and a slow-release cisplatin formulation for treatment of canine nasal tumors. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2004;45(6):57781. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2004.04100.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Théon AP, Madewell BR, Harb MF, Dungworth DL. Megavoltage irradiation of neoplasms of the nasal and paranasal cavities in 77 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;202(9):14691475.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Adams WM, Kleiter MM, Thrall DE, et al. Prognostic significance of tumor histology and computed tomographic staging for radiation treatment response of canine nasal tumors. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50(3):330335. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2009.01545.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Nolan MW. Raw data for 2022 retrospective analysis of 129 pet dogs that underwent 3-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy at NC State (August 5, 2013 to November 9, 2020). February 1, 2022. Accessed June 6, 2022. https://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataset.xhtml?persistentId=doi:10.7910/DVN/N6UL6U

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Rohrer Bley C, Meier VS, Besserer J, Schneider U. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose prescription and reporting: sum and substance of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 83 for veterinary medicine. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2019;60(3):255264. doi:10.1111/vru.12722

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Keyerleber MA, McEntee MC, Farrelly J, Podgorsak M. Completeness of reporting of radiation therapy planning, dose, and delivery in veterinary radiation oncology manuscripts from 2005 to 2010. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2012;53(2):221230. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2011.01882.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Creevy KE, Grady J, Little SE, et al. 2019 AAHA canine life stage guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2019;55(6):267290. doi:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6999

  • 14.

    American Kennel Club. Accessed January 15, 2022. https://www.akc.org

  • 15.

    Nguyen SM, Thamm DH, Vail DM, London CA. Response evaluation criteria for solid tumours in dogs (v1.0): a Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) consensus document. Vet Comp Oncol. 2015;13(3):176183. doi:10.1111/vco.12032

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ladue T, Klein MK. Toxicity criteria of the Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2001;42(5):475476. doi:10.1111/j.1740–8261.2001.tb00973.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Gieger TL, Haney SM, Nolan MW. Re-irradiation of canine non-lymphomatous nasal tumors using stereotactic radiation therapy (10 Gy x 3) for both courses: assessment of outcome and toxicity in 11 dogs. Vet Comp Oncol. 2022;20(2):502508. doi:10.1111/vco.12801

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bishop G, Cooney K, Cox S, et al. 2016 AAHA/IAAHPC end-of-life care guidelines. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2016;52(6):341356. doi:10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6637

  • 19.

    Burk RL, Mauldin GN. Use of a performance scale in small animal radiation therapy. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 1992;33(6):388391. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.1992.tb00164.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Shaw JF, Budiansky D, Sharif F, McIsaac DI. The association of frailty with outcomes after cancer surgery: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Ann Surg Oncol. Published online January 24, 2022. doi:10.1245/s10434-021-11321-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Schwartz M, Muñana KR, Nettifee-Osborne J. Assessment of the prevalence and clinical features of cryptogenic epilepsy in dogs: 45 cases (2003–2011). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2013;242(5):651657. doi:10.2460/javma.242.5.651

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wu L, Chung YL, Tumor-infiltrating T cell receptor-beta repertoires are linked to the risk of late chemoradiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2019;104(1):165176. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.01.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Kondo Y, Matsunaga S, Mochizuki M, et al. Prognosis of canine patients with nasal tumors according to modified clinical stages based on computed tomography: a retrospective study. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70(3):207212. doi:10.1292/jvms.70.207

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Correa SS, Mauldin GN, Mauldin GE, Patnaik AK. Efficacy of cobalt-60 radiation therapy for the treatment of nasal cavity nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma in the dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003;39(1):8689. doi:10.5326/0390086

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Fowler JF. 21 years of biologically effective dose. Br J Radiol. 2010;83(991):554568. doi:10.1259/bjr/31372149

  • 26.

    Hernández-Suárez B, Gillespie DA, Pawlak A. DNA damage response proteins in canine cancer as potential research targets in comparative oncology. Vet Comp Oncol. 2022;20(2):347361. doi:10.1111/vco.12795

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Stereotactic radiotherapy (10 Gy X 3) for canine nonlymphomatous intranasal tumors is associated with prolonged survival and minimal risk of severe radiotoxicity

Michael W. Nolan DVM, PhD, DACVR (Radiation Oncology)1,2, Alyssa R. Berman DVM1, Maegan L. Watson-Skaggs DVM1, Claire N. Quinn DVM1, Karen L. Marcus BS1, Katharine Russell DVM1, Hiroto Yoshikawa DVM, PhD, DACVR (Radiation Oncology)1,2, Natasha J. Olby DVM, PhD, DACVIM (Neurology)1,2, and Tracy L. Gieger DVM, DACVIM (Internal Medicine and Oncology), DACVR (Radiation Oncology)1,2
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
  • | 2 Comparative Medicine Institute, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe oncologic outcomes following administration of a uniform stereotactic radiotherapy protocol (SRT; 10 Gy X 3) for canine intranasal tumors and to identify whether any clinical or dosimetric factors were predictive of event-free or overall survival time (EFST or OST).

ANIMALS

129 dogs.

PROCEDURES

In this single-institution retrospective study, the medical records database was searched for canine nonlymphomatous intranasal tumors treated with 10 Gy X 3 SRT between August 2013 and November 2020. Findings regarding adverse effects and outcomes were analyzed overall, for dogs grouped on the basis of life stage (mature adult, senior, or end of life), and for treatment-related or tumor-related variables to identify potential predictors of outcome.

RESULTS

After SRT, most dogs clinically improved with minimal acute radiotoxicity. The median EFST was 237 days; median OST was 542 days. Receipt of other tumor-directed therapies before or after SRT was associated with improved EFST in senior dogs (hazard ratio [HR], 0.416) and improved OST in mature adult (HR, 0.241) and senior dogs (HR, 0.348). In senior dogs, administration of higher near-minimum radiation doses was associated with improved EFST (HR, 0.686) and OST (HR, 0.743). In senior dogs, chondrosarcoma was associated with shorter OST (HR, 7.232), and in dogs at end of life, having a squamous cell or transitional carcinoma was associated with worse EFST (HR, 6.462).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This SRT protocol results in improved quality of life and prolonged OST for dogs of all life stages. Radiation protocol optimization or use of multimodal therapy may further improve outcomes.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 133 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (PDF 182 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S3 (PDF 94 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S4 (PDF 100 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S5 (PDF 100 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S6 (PDF 158 KB)
    • Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 155 KB)
    • Supplementary Figure S2 (PDF 139 KB)

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Gieger (tlgieger@ncsu.edu)