• 1.

    Saoudi N, Cosio F, Waldo A, et al. Classification of atrial flutter and regular atrial tachycardia according to electrophysiologic mechanism and anatomic bases: a statement from a joint expert group from the Working Group of Arrhythmias of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001;12(7):852866. doi:10.1046/j.1540-8167.2001.00852.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Konecny T, Park JY, Somers KR, et al. Relation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Cardiol. 2014;114(2):272277. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.04.030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Gami AS, Gregg P, Caples SM, et al. Association of atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation. 2004;110(4):364367. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000136587.68725.8E

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Goudis CA. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation: an unknown relationship. J Cardiol. 2017;69(5):699705. doi:10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.12.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Celli BR, MacNee W, ATS/ERS Task Force. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. Eur Respir J. 2004;23(6):932946. doi:10.1183/09031936.04.00014304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Rancan L, Romussi S, Garcia P, et al. Assessment of circulating concentrations of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome. Am J Vet Res. 2013;74(1):155160. doi:10.2460/ajvr.74.1.155

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    López A, Martinson SA. Respiratory system, mediastinum, and pleurae. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2017:471–560.e1.doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-35775-3.00009-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Grymonprez M, Vakaet V, Kavousi M, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the development of atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol. 2019;276:118124. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.09.056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Hayashi T, Fukamizu S, Hojo R, et al. Prevalence and electrophysiological characteristics of typical atrial flutter in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. EP Europace. 2013;15(12):17771783. doi:10.1093/europace/eut158

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Ren M, Li X, Hao L, Zhong J. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation: a novel potential therapeutic target? Ann Med. 2015;47(4):316324. doi:10.3109/07853890.2015.1042030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Liew R, Khairunnisa K, Gu Y, et al. Role of tumor necrosis factor-α in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrosis and development of an arrhythmogenic substrate. Circ J. 2013;77(5):11711179. doi:10.1253/circj.cj-12-1155

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Scott L Jr, Li N, Dobrev D. Role of inflammatory signaling in atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol. 2019;287:195200. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.10.020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Derakhchan K, Li D, Courtemanche M, et al. Method for simultaneous epicardial and endocardial mapping of in vivo canine heart: application to atrial conduction properties and arrhythmia mechanisms. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2001;12(5):548555. doi:10.1046/j.1540-8167.2001.00548.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Waldo AL, Feld GK. Inter-relationships of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;51(8):779786. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.08.066

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Planellas M, Cuenca R, Tabar M-D, et al. Evaluation of C-reactive protein, Haptoglobin and cardiac troponin 1 levels in brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstructive syndrome. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:152. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-8-152

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dernellis J, Panaretou M. Relationship between C-reactive protein concentrations during glucocorticoid therapy and recurrent atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(13):11001107. doi:10.1016/j.ehj.2004.04.025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Goldstein RN, Ryu K, Khrestian C, van Wagoner DR, Waldo AL. Prednisone prevents inducible atrial flutter in the canine sterile pericarditis model. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008;19(1):7481. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8167.2007.00970.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Schmidt M, Christiansen CF, Mehnert F, Schmidt M et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter: population based case-control study. BMJ. 2011;343:d3450. doi:10.1136/bmj.d3450

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Tran NT, Larry Klein J, Paul Mounsey J, et al. Lone atrial fibrillation is associated with pectus excavatum. Heart Rhythm. 2013;10(9):12631269. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.05.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Savolainen A, Kupari M, Toivonen L, Kaitila I, Viitasalo M. Abnormal ambulatory electrocardiographic findings in patients with the Marfan syndrome. J Intern Med. 1997;241(3):221226. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1997.115125000.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

ECG of the Month

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Chen (kaiwenchen@vet.k-state.edu)