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Sinonasal mycosis following transfrontal craniotomy in three dogs

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, England
  • | 2 IVC Evidensia Referral Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden
  • | 3 Cave Veterinary Referrals, West Buckland, North Wellington, Somerset, England

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

Three dogs were presented for investigation of chronic nasal discharge and epistaxis 141, 250, and 357 days after undergoing transfrontal craniotomy to treat an intracranial meningioma (2 dogs) or a meningoencephalocele (1 dog).

CLINICAL FINDINGS

CT findings were consistent with destructive rhinitis and frontal sinusitis in all 3 dogs, with results of histologic examination and fungal culture of samples obtained during frontal sinusotomy confirming mycotic infection. Frontal sinusotomy revealed fungal plaques covering a combination of bone and residual surgical tissue adhesive at the site of the previous craniotomy in all 3 dogs. Aspergillus spp were identified in all 3 dogs, and Chrysosporium sp was also identified in 1 dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Surgical curettage was followed by antifungal treatment (topical clotrimazole in 2 dogs and oral itraconazole for 3 months in 1 dog). Nasal discharge improved in the short-term but recurred in all dogs 99, 118, and 110 days after frontal sinusotomy. One dog received no further treatment, 1 dog received an additional 8.5 months of oral itraconazole treatment, and 1 dog underwent 2 additional surgical debridement procedures. At last follow-up, 2 dogs were alive 311 and 481 days after frontal sinusotomy; the third dog was euthanized because of status epilepticus 223 days after frontal sinusotomy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sinonasal mycosis should be considered as a potential complication in dogs developing persistent mucopurulent nasal discharge, intermittent epistaxis, and intermittent sneezing following transfrontal craniotomy. The pathophysiology may be multifactorial, and potential risk factors, including use of surgical tissue adhesive in the frontal sinus, require further investigation.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

Three dogs were presented for investigation of chronic nasal discharge and epistaxis 141, 250, and 357 days after undergoing transfrontal craniotomy to treat an intracranial meningioma (2 dogs) or a meningoencephalocele (1 dog).

CLINICAL FINDINGS

CT findings were consistent with destructive rhinitis and frontal sinusitis in all 3 dogs, with results of histologic examination and fungal culture of samples obtained during frontal sinusotomy confirming mycotic infection. Frontal sinusotomy revealed fungal plaques covering a combination of bone and residual surgical tissue adhesive at the site of the previous craniotomy in all 3 dogs. Aspergillus spp were identified in all 3 dogs, and Chrysosporium sp was also identified in 1 dog.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Surgical curettage was followed by antifungal treatment (topical clotrimazole in 2 dogs and oral itraconazole for 3 months in 1 dog). Nasal discharge improved in the short-term but recurred in all dogs 99, 118, and 110 days after frontal sinusotomy. One dog received no further treatment, 1 dog received an additional 8.5 months of oral itraconazole treatment, and 1 dog underwent 2 additional surgical debridement procedures. At last follow-up, 2 dogs were alive 311 and 481 days after frontal sinusotomy; the third dog was euthanized because of status epilepticus 223 days after frontal sinusotomy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sinonasal mycosis should be considered as a potential complication in dogs developing persistent mucopurulent nasal discharge, intermittent epistaxis, and intermittent sneezing following transfrontal craniotomy. The pathophysiology may be multifactorial, and potential risk factors, including use of surgical tissue adhesive in the frontal sinus, require further investigation.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Pilkington (epilkington20@rvc.ac.uk)