• 1.

    Brady WJ, Mattu A, Tabas J, Ferguson JD. The differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(10):15251529. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2017.07.056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Santilli R. Ventricular arrhythmias. In: Santilli R, Moïse S, Pariaut R, et al., eds. Electrocardiography of the Dog and Cat: Diagnosis of Arrhythmias. 2nd ed. Edra; 2018:207, 231234.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Dennis S. Arrhythmias. In: Fuentes VL, Johnson L, Dennis S, eds. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiorespiratory Medicine. 2nd ed. Wiley; 2010:121141.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Barr SC. Canine Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis) in North America. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009;39(6):10551064, v-vi. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2009.06.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Levy S. Differentiating SVT from VT-a personal viewpoint. Eur Heart J. 1994;15(suppl A):3138.

  • 6.

    Wright KN, Nguyenba T, Irvin HM. Lidocaine for chemical cardioversion of orthodromic atrioventricularreciprocating tachycardia in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(4):15851592. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15546

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Kong LR, Leach SB. ECG of the Month. Atrial flutter. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2019;255(7):793795. doi:10.2460/javma.255.7.793

  • 8.

    Quantz JE, Miles MS, Reed AL, White GA. Elevation of alanine transaminase and gallbladder wall abnormalities as biomarkers of anaphylaxis in canine hypersensitivity patients. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2009;19(6):536544. doi:10.1111/j.1476-4431.2009.00474.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Shmuel DL, Cortes Y. Anaphylaxis in dogs and cats. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2013;23(4):377394. doi:10.1111/vec.12066

  • 10.

    Klotz JH, Dorn PL, Logan JL, et al. “Kissing bugs”: potential disease vectors and cause of anaphylaxis. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50(12):16291634. doi:10.1086/652769

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Wolff AA, Levi R. Histamine and cardiac arrhythmias. Circ Res. 1986;58(1):116. doi:10.1161/01.res.58.1.1

  • 12.

    Bélanger C, Visser LC, Stern JA. ECG of the Month. Junctional escape-capture bigeminy. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016;249:11381140. doi:10.2460/javma.249.10.1138

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Triggiani M, Patella V, Staiano RI, Granata F, Marone G. Allergy and the cardiovascular system. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;153(suppl 1):711. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03714.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Senges J, Randolf U, Katus H. Ventricular arrhythmias in cardiac anaphylaxis. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1977;300(2):115121. doi:10.1007/BF00505041

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Della Bella P, Riva S, Fassini G, et al. Incidence and significance of pleomorphism in patients with postmyocardial infarction ventricular tachycardia. Acute and long-term outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(13):11271138. doi:10.1016/j.ehj.2004.01.021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    ElMunzer BJ, Sallach SM, McGuire DK. Cardiac chagas disease masquerading as an acute myocardial infarction. Cardiol Rev. 2004;12(2):6972. doi:10.1097/01.crd.0000091840.92246.21

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Korff S, Katus HA, Giannitsis E. Differential diagnosis of elevated troponins. Heart. 2006;92(7):987993. doi:10.1136/hrt.2005.071282

  • 18.

    Kounis NG. Coronary hypersensitivity disorder: the Kounis syndrome. Clin Ther. 2013;35(5):563571. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.02.022

  • 19.

    Lippi G, Buonocore R, Schirosa F, Cervellin G. Cardiac troponin I is increased in patients admitted to the emergency department with severe allergic reactions. A case-control study. Int J Cardiol. 2015;194:6869. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.093

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Tilley LP, Smith F, Smith WK Jr. Electrocardiography. In: Tilley LP, Smith F, Smith WK Jr, Oyama M, Sleeper M, eds. Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiology. 4th ed. Elsevier; 2008:4977.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Elizari MV, Chiale PA. Cardiac arrhythmias in Chagas’ heart disease. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 1993;4(5):596608. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8167.1993.tb01247.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Lieberman NA, Harris RS, Katz RI, Lipschutz HM, Dolgin M, Fisher VJ. The effects of lidocaine on the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Am J Cardiol. 1968;22(3):375380. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(68)90122-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Lichstein E, Chadda KD, Gupta PK. Atrioventricular block with lidocaine therapy. Am J Cardiol. 1973;31(2):277281. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(73)91042-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Hilleman DE, Mohiuddin SM, Destache CJ. Lidocaine-induced second-degree mobitz type II heart block. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1985;19(9):669673. doi:10.1177/106002808501900911

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Mohamed A, Andrade J, Bayliss M, Wong GC. Transient 2:1 atrioventricular block following anaphylactic reaction to low-ionic strength computed tomography contrast agent. Can J Cardiol. 2008;24(12):e96e98. doi:10.1016/s0828-282x(08)70702-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Rebet O, Leclerc C, Sillard B, Barthélémy S, Laroche D, Vergnaud M-C. Complete heart block and myocardial ischaemia during a severe anaphylactic reaction [in French]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2008;27(12):10261029. doi:10.1016/j.annfar.2008.08.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

ECG of the Month

View More View Less
  • 1 BluePearl Pet Hospital, New Braunfels, TX
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Lim (Myaroding@gmail.com)