• 1.

    Johnson LR, Johnson EG, Vernau W, Kass PH, Byrne BA. Bronchoscopy, imaging, and concurrent diseases in dogs with bronchiectasis: (2003–2014). J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(1):247254. doi:10.1111/jvim.13809

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Dengate A, Culvenor JA, Graham K, Braddock JA, Churcher RK. Bronchial stent placement in a dog with bronchomalacia and left atrial enlargement. J Small Anim Pract. 2014;55(4):225228. doi:10.1111/jsap.12183

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Singh MK, Johnson LR, Kittleson MD, Pollard RE. Bronchomalacia in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve degeneration. J Vet Intern Med. 2012;26(2):312319. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.00887.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Weisse C. Insights in tracheobronchial stenting and a theory of bronchial compression. J Small Anim Pract. 2014;55(4):181184. doi:10.1111/jsap.12209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    De Lorenzi D, Bertoncello D, Drigo M. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;235(7):835840. doi:10.2460/javma.235.7.835

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Marolf A, Blaik M, Specht A. A retrospective study of the relationship between tracheal collapse and bronchiectasis in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2007;48(3):199203. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00229.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Johnson LR, Pollard RE. Tracheal collapse and bronchomalacia in dogs: 58 cases (7/2001–1/2008). J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24(2):298305. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0451.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Uehara T, Orito K, Fujii Y. CT-based anatomical features of large airway and heart volume in dogs of different body size. Vet J. 2019;246:2126. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2019.01.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Breed size designations. American Kennel Club. Accessed September 23, 2020. https://www.akc.org/dog-breeds/

  • 10.

    Definitions of thoracic depth and barrel conformation. American Kennel Club. Accessed September 23, 2020. https://www.akc.org/about/glossary/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Borgarelli M, Crosara S, Lamb K, et al. Survival characteristics and prognostic variables of dogs with preclinical chronic degenerative mitral valve disease attributable to myxomatous degeneration. J Vet Intern Med. 2012;26(1):6975. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00860.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Boswood A, Häggström J, Gordon SG, et al. Effect of pimobendan in dogs with preclinical myxomatous mitral valve disease and cardiomegaly: the EPIC study—a randomized clinical trial. J Vet Intern Med. 2016;30(6):17651779. doi:10.1111/jvim.14586

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Chetboul V, Pouchelon JL, Menard J, et al. Short-term efficacy and safety of torasemide and furosemide in 366 dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease: the TEST study. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31(6):16291642. doi:10.1111/jvim.14841

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Mattin MJ, Boswood A, Church DB, Brodbelt DC. Prognostic factors in dogs with presumed degenerative mitral valve disease attending primary-care veterinary practices in the United Kingdom. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(2):432444. doi:10.1111/jvim.15251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Measurement in medicine: the analysis of method comparison studies. Statistician. 1983;32(3):307317. doi:10.2307/2987937

  • 16.

    Schaible RH, Ziech J, Glickman NW, Schellenberg D, Yi Q, Glickman LT. Predisposition to gastric dilatation-volvulus in relation to genetics of thoracic conformation in Irish Setters. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 1997;33(5):379383. doi:10.5326/15473317-33-5-379

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    De Rycke LM, Gielen IM, Simoens PJ, van Bree H. Computed tomography and cross-sectional anatomy of the thorax in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66(3):512524. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.512

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Johnson LR, Singh MK, Pollard RE. Agreement among radiographs, fluoroscopy and bronchoscopy in documentation of airway collapse in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2015;29(6):16191626. doi:10.1111/jvim.13612

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Bottero E, Bellino C, De Lorenzi D, et al. Clinical evaluation and endoscopic classification of bronchomalacia in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(4):840846. doi:10.1111/jvim.12096

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Ferasin L, Crews L, Biller DS, Lamb KE, Borgarelli M. Risk factors for coughing in dogs with naturally acquired myxomatous mitral valve disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(2):286292. doi:10.1111/jvim.12039

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Kim H, Kim YJ, Lee H, et al. Computed tomographic and radiographic bronchial collapse may be a normal characteristic of forced expiration in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2018;59(5):551563. doi:10.1111/vru.12625

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Computed tomographic assessment of principal bronchial anatomy in dogs of various thoracic conformations: 93 cases (2012–2017)

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada
  • | 2 Department of Interventional Radiology & Endoscopy, The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY
  • | 3 Lamb Consulting, Minneapolis, MN

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To better understand spatial relationships between principal bronchi and other intrathoracic structures by use of CT images of dogs of various somatotypes.

ANIMALS

93 dogs that underwent thoracic CT.

PROCEDURES

Information was collected from medical records regarding signalment and physical examination and echocardiographic findings. Two investigators recorded multiple measurements on a thoracic axial CT image from each dog.

RESULTS

Thoracic height-to-width ratio (H:W) was associated with left principal bronchus (LPB) and right principal bronchus (RPB) H:W, aortic-LPB separation, focal LPB narrowing, and aortic-vertebral overlap. Thoracic H:W was not associated with dog age, weight, sex, or brachycephalic breed. Twenty-five (27%) dogs had focal LPB narrowing, compared with 5 (5%) dogs with focal RPB narrowing (P < 0.001). Ten of 25 dogs had overlap or contact between vertebrae, aorta, LPB, and heart, suggesting a cumulative compressive effect on the LPB, while 15 had LPB-aorta contact and lack of contact between the aorta and thoracic vertebrae, suggesting an aortic constrictive effect on the LPB. None had LPB narrowing without contact from surrounding structures. Inter-rater agreement was high.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In dogs that underwent CT and were not selected for clinical suspicion of bronchial disease, principal bronchial morphology was associated with thoracic conformation. Focal LPB narrowing occurred more often than RPB narrowing. Focal LPB narrowing occurred with evidence of extraluminal compression, with or without contact between aorta and vertebrae. Brachycephalic breed could not be used for predicting thoracic H:W.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 93 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (PDF 155 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S3 (PDF 116 KB)

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Côté (vetcardio@upei.ca)