• 1.

    Ehrhart NP, Ryan SD, Fan TM. Tumors of the skeletal system. In: Withrow SJ, Vail DM, Page RL, eds. Withrow and MacEwen's Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. WB Saunders; 2013:463503.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Wrigley RH. Malignant versus nonmalignant bone disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000;30(2):315347, vi–vii.

  • 3.

    Graupmann-Kuzma A, Valentine BA, Shubitz LF, Dial SM, Watrous B, Tornquist SJ. Coccidioidomycosis in dogs and cats: a review. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2008;44(5):226235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Greene CE. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th ed. Elsevier/Saunders; 2012.

  • 5.

    Reed RE. Diagnosis of disseminated canine coccidioidomycosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1956;128(4):196201.

  • 6.

    Maddy KT. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis of the dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1958;132(11):483489.

  • 7.

    Brodey RS, Roszel JF, Rhodes WH, Bohn FK, Enck J. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1970;157(7):926933.

  • 8.

    Hage TJ, Moulton JE. Skeletal coccidioidomycosis in dogs. Cornell Vet. 1954;44(4):489500.

  • 9.

    Johnson LR, Herrgesell EJ, Davidson AP, Pappagianis D. Clinical, clinicopathologic, and radiographic findings in dogs with coccidioidomycosis: 24 cases (1995–2000). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222(4):461466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Davidson AP, Shubitz LF, Alcott CJ, Sykes JE. Selected clinical features of coccidioidomycosis in dogs. Med Mycol. 2019;57(suppl 1):S67S75.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Shubitz LF. Comparative aspects of coccidioidomycosis in animals and humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1111:395403.

  • 12.

    Taljanovic MS, Adam RD. Musculoskeletal coccidioidomycosis. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2011;15(5):511526.

  • 13.

    Blair JE. State-of-the-art treatment of coccidioidomycosis skeletal infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1111:422433.

  • 14.

    Jankowski MK, Steyn PF, Lana SE, et al. Nuclear scanning with 99mTc-HDP for the initial evaluation of osseous metastasis in canine osteosarcoma. Vet Comp Oncol. 2003;1(3):152158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Shubitz LE, Butkiewicz CD, Dial SM, Lindan CP. Incidence of coccidioides infection among dogs residing in a region in which the organism is endemic. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226(11):18461850.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Renschler J, Albers A, Sinclair-Mackling H, Wheat LJ. Comparison of compounded, generic, and innovator-formulated itraconazole in dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2018;54(4):195200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Mawby DI, Whittemore JC, Genger S, Papich MG. Bioequivalence of orally administered generic, compounded, and innovator-formulated itraconazole in healthy dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2014;28(1):7277.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Adam RD, Elliott SP, Taljanovic MS. The spectrum and presentation of disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Am J Med. 2009;122((8):770777.

  • 19.

    Bentley RT, Heng HG, Thompson C, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging features and outcome for solitary central nervous system Coccidioides granulomas in 11 dogs and cats. Veterinary Radiol Ultrasound. 2015;56(5):520530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Clinical features, treatment, and outcome of dogs with Coccidioides osteomyelitis

Stephanie L. Shaver DVM, MS1, Daniel S. Foy MS, DVM1, and Todd D. Carter DVM1
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Specialty Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe signalment, clinical signs, serologic test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with Coccidioides osteomyelitis (COM) and to compare those findings with findings for dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).

ANIMALS

14 dogs with COM and 16 dogs with OSA.

PROCEDURES

Data were retrospectively gathered from electronic medical records.

RESULTS

Dogs with COM were younger and weighed less than dogs with OSA. Six dogs with COM had appendicular lesions, 5 had axial lesions, and 3 had both appendicular and axial lesions; 9 had monostotic disease, and 5 had polyostotic disease. Axial lesions and nonadjacent polyostotic disease were more common in dogs with COM than in dogs with OSA, but radiographic appearance was not different between the 2 groups. Median IgG titer at diagnosis of COM was 1:48 and was significantly decreased after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Percentage of dogs with COM that had clinical signs was significantly decreased after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. One year after initiation of treatment, 9 of 9 dogs were still receiving fluconazole and 8 of 9 dogs had positive results for serum IgG titer testing.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs with COM typically had a rapid improvement in clinical signs after initiating treatment with fluconazole but required long-term antifungal treatment. Dogs with COM differed from dogs with OSA, but radiographic features had a great degree of overlap between groups, confounding the ability to make a diagnosis on the basis of diagnostic imaging alone.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe signalment, clinical signs, serologic test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with Coccidioides osteomyelitis (COM) and to compare those findings with findings for dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).

ANIMALS

14 dogs with COM and 16 dogs with OSA.

PROCEDURES

Data were retrospectively gathered from electronic medical records.

RESULTS

Dogs with COM were younger and weighed less than dogs with OSA. Six dogs with COM had appendicular lesions, 5 had axial lesions, and 3 had both appendicular and axial lesions; 9 had monostotic disease, and 5 had polyostotic disease. Axial lesions and nonadjacent polyostotic disease were more common in dogs with COM than in dogs with OSA, but radiographic appearance was not different between the 2 groups. Median IgG titer at diagnosis of COM was 1:48 and was significantly decreased after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Percentage of dogs with COM that had clinical signs was significantly decreased after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment. One year after initiation of treatment, 9 of 9 dogs were still receiving fluconazole and 8 of 9 dogs had positive results for serum IgG titer testing.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dogs with COM typically had a rapid improvement in clinical signs after initiating treatment with fluconazole but required long-term antifungal treatment. Dogs with COM differed from dogs with OSA, but radiographic features had a great degree of overlap between groups, confounding the ability to make a diagnosis on the basis of diagnostic imaging alone.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Shaver (sshave@midwestern.edu)