• 1.

    Fudge A, Speer BL. Appendix 2—normal clinical pathologic data. In: Speer BL, ed. Current Therapy in Avian Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier; 2016:825855.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Hawkey C, Hart MG. An analysis of the incidence of hyperfibrinogenaemia in birds with bacterial infections. Avian Pathol. 1988;17(2):427432.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Pennycott TW, Duncan G, Venugopal K. Marek’s disease, candidiasis and megabacteriosis in a flock of chickens (Gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Vet Rec. 2003;153(10):293297.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Quist EM, Belcher C, Levine G, Heatley JJ, Kiupel M, Giri D. Disseminated histoplasmosis with concurrent oral candidiasis in an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). Avian Pathol. 2011;40(2):207211.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Donnelly KA, Wellehan JFX Jr, Quesenberry K. Gastrointestinal disease associated with non-albicans Candida species in six birds. J Avian Med Surg. 2019;33(4):413418.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Brilhante RSN, Castelo-Branco DSCM, Soares GDP, et al. Characterization of the gastrointestinal yeast microbiota of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus): a potential hazard to human health. J Med Microbiol. 2010(pt 6);59:718723.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hubbard GB, Schmidt RE, Eisenbrandt DL, Witt WM, Fletcher KC. Fungal infections of ventriculi in captive birds. J Wildl Dis. 1985;21(1):2528.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Reavill DR, Dorrestein G. Psittacines, Coliiformes, Musophagiformes, Cuculiformes. In: Terio KA, McAloose D, St Leger J, eds. Pathology of Wildlife and Zoo Animals. Academic Press; 2018:775798.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Nouri M, Kamyabi Z. Occurrence of ventricular candidiasis in a lovebird (Agapornis fischeri). Iran J Vet Sci Technol. 2010;2(1):5156.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Muir M, Raidal SR. Necrotizing ventriculitis due to combined infection with Rhizopus microspores var. chinensis and Candida krusei in an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). Aust Vet J. 2012;90(7):277280.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Delk KW, Wack RF, Burgdorf-Moisuk A, Kass PH, Cray C. Acute phase protein and electrophoresis protein fracture values for captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2015;46(4):929933.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    De Voe R, Degernes L, Karli K. Dysplastic koilin causing proventricular obstruction in an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). J Avian Med Surg. 2003;17(1):2732.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cotton III RJ, Divers SJ. Endoscopic removal of gastrointestinal foreign bodies in two African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). J Avian Med Surg. 2017;31(4):335343.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Dennison SE, Adams WM, Johnson PJ, Yandell BS, Paul-Murphy JR. Prognostic accuracy of the proventriculus: keel ratio for short-term survival in psittacines with proventricular disease. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50(5):483486.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Rettmer H, Deb A, Watson R, Hatt J-M, Hammer S. Radiographic measurement of internal organs of Spix’s macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii). J Avian Med Surg. 2011;25(4):254258.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Geerinckx L, Van der Vekens E, Saunders JH, Lautenschläger I, Van Caelenberg AIL. Literature review of radiographic measurements of internal organs in Psittaciformes. J Exot Pet Med. 2018;28:6068.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Dennison SE, Paul-Murphy JR, Adams WM. Radiographic determination of proventricular diameter in psittacine birds. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232(5):709714.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Gancz AY, Clubb S, Shivaprasad HL. Advanced diagnostic approaches and current management of proventricular dilatation disease. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2010;13(3):471494.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Applegate JR Jr, Wettere AV, Christiansen EF, Degernes LA. Management and case outcome of gastric impaction in four raptors: a case series. J Avian Med Surg. 2017;31(1):6269.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Krautwald-Junghanns ME, Stahl A, Pees M, Enders F, Bartels T. Sonographic investigations of the gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2002;43(6):576582.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Krautwald-Junghanns ME, Moerke-Schindler T, Vorbrüggen S, et al. Radiography and ultrasonography in the backyard poultry and waterfowl patient. J Avian Med Surg. 2017;31(3):189197.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kusmierczyk J, Wall CR, Hoppes S, Budke CM, Spaulding KA. Comparison of computed tomographic images of birds obtained with sedation vs general anesthesia. J Exot Pet Med. 2013;22(3):251257.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    van Zeeland YRA, Schoemaker NJ, Hsu EW. Advances in diagnostic imaging. In: Speer BL, ed. Current Therapy in Avian Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier; 2016:531549.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Veladiano IA, Banzato T, Bellini L, Montani A, Catania S, Zotti A. Normal computed tomographic features and reference values for the coelomic cavity in pet parrots. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12(1):182. doi: 10.1186/s12917-016-0821-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Lautenschlager S, Bright JA, Rayfield EJ. Digital dissection—using contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning to elucidate hard- and soft-tissue anatomy in the common buzzard Buteo buteo. J Anat. 2014;224(4):412431.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Sladakovic I, Ellis AE, Divers SJ. Evaluation of gastroscopy and biopsy of the proventriculus and ventriculus in pigeons (Columba livia). Am J Vet Res. 2017;78(1):4249.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Bauck L. Mycoses. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, eds. Avian Medicine: Principles and Applications. HBD International Inc; 1999:9971007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Guzman DSM. Avian soft tissue surgery. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2016;19(1):133157.

  • 29.

    Rubin JA, Runge JJ, Mison M, et al. Surgery. In: Speer BL, ed. Current Therapy in Avian Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier; 2016:631667.

  • 30.

    Simova-Curd S, Foldenauer U, Guerrero T, Hatt JM, Hoop R. Comparison of ventriculotomy closure with and without a coelomic fat patch in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). J Avian Med Surg. 2013;27(1):713.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Antonissen G, Martel A. Antifungal therapy in birds: old drugs in a new jacket. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2018;21(2):355377.

  • 32.

    Anderson NL. Candida/Megabacteria proventriculitis in a lesser Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea sulphurea). J Assoc Avian Vet. 1993;7(4):197201.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Martins HPR, da Silva MC, Paiva LCF, Svidzinski TIE, Consolaro MEL. Efficacy of fluconazole and nystatin in the treatment of vaginal Candida species. Acta Derm Venereol. 2012;92(1):7882.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Kakati B, Kotwal A, Biswas D, et al. Fluconazole resistant Candida oesophagitis in immunocompetent patients: is empirical therapy justifiable? J Clin Diagn Res. 2015;9(12):DC16DC18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Fan S, Liu X, Wu C, Xu L, Li J. Vaginal nystatin versus oral fluconazole for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Mycopathologia. 2015;179(1-2):95101.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Wilson A, Delport J, Ponich T. Candida glabrata esophagitis: are we seeing the emergence of a new azole-resistant pathogen? Int J Microbiol 2014;2014:371631. doi: 10.1155/2014/371631

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Diaz MC, Camponovo R, Araya I, Santander MP, Carrillo-Muñoz AJ. Identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of vaginal Candida spp. isolates to fluconazole, clotrimazole, and nystatin. Article in Spanish. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2016;29(3):151154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Miranda-Cadena K, Marcos-Arias C, Mateo E, Manuel Aguirre J, Quindós G, Eraso E. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and their close-related species in oral candidiasis. Arch Oral Biol. 2018;95:100107.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Diagnosis and treatment of Candida glabrata proventriculitis in an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus)

View More View Less
  • 1 William T. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA
  • | 2 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA
  • | 3 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old sexually intact female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) with a 4-day history of hyporexia and lethargy and a 1-day history of tenesmus was examined.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Severe leukocytosis characterized by severe heterophilia and moderate monocytosis was present. Marked dilation of the proventriculus and ventriculus and ascites were identified by means of radiography, coelomic ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT, with no clinically relevant motility noted on ultrasonography. Results of coelomic fluid analysis were consistent with pyogranulomatous effusion. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract following proventricular and ventricular lavage showed a thick caseous plaque occupying 30% of the caudal proventricular mucosa. Abundant yeast organisms were evident during cytologic examination of a proventricular and ventricular wash sample, and fecal culture yielded Candida glabrata.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The bird was treated with SC fluids, assisted feedings, nystatin, fluconazole, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, gastroprotectants, maropitant, and analgesics and slowly improved during hospitalization. A marked decrease in proventricular dilation was evident on serial radiographs obtained over a 12-month period. One year after diagnosis, the bird was presented with a 1-week history of hyporexia and lethargy, and fecal culture grew C glabrata. Antifungal treatment was resumed for 3 months. The bird had no clinical signs of infection 16 months after this recurrence, and subsequent fecal cultures were negative for fungal growth.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings illustrate the importance of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in diagnosing proventricular and ventricular dilation in birds and emphasize the need for long-term antifungal treatment and monitoring in birds with fungal infections.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old sexually intact female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) with a 4-day history of hyporexia and lethargy and a 1-day history of tenesmus was examined.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Severe leukocytosis characterized by severe heterophilia and moderate monocytosis was present. Marked dilation of the proventriculus and ventriculus and ascites were identified by means of radiography, coelomic ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced CT, with no clinically relevant motility noted on ultrasonography. Results of coelomic fluid analysis were consistent with pyogranulomatous effusion. Endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract following proventricular and ventricular lavage showed a thick caseous plaque occupying 30% of the caudal proventricular mucosa. Abundant yeast organisms were evident during cytologic examination of a proventricular and ventricular wash sample, and fecal culture yielded Candida glabrata.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The bird was treated with SC fluids, assisted feedings, nystatin, fluconazole, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, gastroprotectants, maropitant, and analgesics and slowly improved during hospitalization. A marked decrease in proventricular dilation was evident on serial radiographs obtained over a 12-month period. One year after diagnosis, the bird was presented with a 1-week history of hyporexia and lethargy, and fecal culture grew C glabrata. Antifungal treatment was resumed for 3 months. The bird had no clinical signs of infection 16 months after this recurrence, and subsequent fecal cultures were negative for fungal growth.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings illustrate the importance of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in diagnosing proventricular and ventricular dilation in birds and emphasize the need for long-term antifungal treatment and monitoring in birds with fungal infections.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman (guzman@ucdavis.edu)