• 1.

    Scott M. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumours. In: Scott D, Miller W, Griffin C, eds. Muller and Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology. 6th ed. WB Saunders Co; 2001:12361414.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Thomas RC, Fox LE. Tumors of the skin and subcutis. In: Morrison WB, ed. Cancer in Dogs and Cats: Medical and Surgical Management. 2nd ed. Teton NewMedia; 2001:469488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Gross T. Lymphocytic tumours. In: Gross TL, Ihrke PJ, Walder EJ, Affolter VK, eds. Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat: Clinical and Histopathological Diagnosis. 2nd ed. Blackwell Science; 2005:866888.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Day MJ. Immunophenotypic characterization of cutaneous lymphoid neoplasia in the dog and cat. J Comp Pathol. 1995;112(1):7996.

  • 5.

    De Bosschere H, Declercq J. Cutaneous nonepitheliotropic B-cell lymphoma in a Golden Retriever. Vlaams Diergeneeskd Tijdschr. 2008;77(5):315318.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Chan CM, Frimberger AE, Moore AS. Clinical outcome and prognosis of dogs with histopathological features consistent with epitheliotropic lymphoma: a retrospective study of 148 cases (2003–2015). Vet Dermatol. 2018;29(2):e154e159. doi: 10.1111/vde.12504

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ueno H, Isomura H, Tanabe S, Tabuchi H, Yamada K, Sato M. Solitary nonepitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma in a dog. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66(4):437439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Moore PF, Olivry T. Cutaneous lymphomas in companion animals. Clin Dermatol. 1994;12(4):499505.

  • 9.

    Moore PF, Affolter VK, Keller SM. Canine inflamed nonepitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a diagnostic conundrum. Vet Dermatol. 2013;24(1):204211.e44–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2012.01106.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Beale KM, Bolon B. Canine cutaneous lymphosarcoma: epitheliotropic and non-epitheliotropic, a retrospective study. In: Ihrke PJ, Mason IS, White SD, eds. Advances in Veterinary Dermatology. Vol 2. Pergamon Press; 1993:273284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Fontaine J, Bovens C, Bettenay S, Mueller RS. Canine cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma: a review. Vet Comp Oncol. 2009;7(1):114. doi: 10.1111/j.2476.5829.2008.00176.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Olsen E, Vonderheid E, Pimpinelli N, et al. Revisions to the staging and classification of mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: a proposal of the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas (ISCL) and the cutaneous lymphoma task force of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Blood. 2007;110(6):17131722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Willemze R, Hodak E, Zinzani PL, Specht L, Ladetto M, ESMO Guidelines Committee. Primary cutaneous lymphomas: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol. 2018;29(suppl 4):iv30iv40. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdy133

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Olsen EA. Evaluation, diagnosis, and staging of cutaneous lymphoma. Dermatol Clin. 2015;33(4):643654.

  • 15.

    Howlett DC, Wong WL, Smith NP, Ayers AB. Computed tomography in the evaluation of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Eur J Radiol. 1995;20(1):3942.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Bass JC, Korobkin MT, Cooper KD, Kane NM, Platt JF. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: CT in evaluation and staging. Radiology. 1993;186(1):273278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Miketic LM, Chambers TP, Lembersky BC. Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: value of CT in staging and determining prognosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;160(5):11291132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bekkenk MW, Geelen FA, van Voorst Vader PC, et al. Primary and secondary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliterative disorders: a report from the Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Group on the long-term follow-up data of 219 patients and guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Blood. 2000;95(12):36533661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Sutton AM, Hurley MY. Clinical practice guidelines for cutaneous lymphomas. Mo Med. 2015;112(4):292295.

  • 20.

    Veraa S, Dijkman R, Meij BP, Voorhout G. Comparative imaging of spinal extradural lymphoma in a Bordeaux dog. Can Vet J. 2010;51(5):519521.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Jones ID, Daniels AD, Lara-Garcia A, Peters LM, Mantis P. Computed tomographic findings in 12 cases of canine multi-centric lymphoma with splenic and hepatic involvement. J Small Anim Pract. 2017;58(11):622628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Thierry F, Longo M, Pecceu E, Zani DD, Schwarz T. Computed tomographic appearance of canine tonsillar neoplasia: 14 cases. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2018;59(1):5463.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Liebich HG, Maierl J, König HE. Fasciae and muscles of the head, neck and trunk. In: König HE, Liebich HG, eds. Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Mammals. 3rd ed. Schauttauer; 2005:113144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Al Bagdadi F. The integument. In: de Lahunta A, Evans HE, eds. Miller's Anatomy of the Dog. 4th ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2013:6179.

  • 25.

    Zhang J, Li Y, Zhao Y, Qiao J. CT and MRI of superficial solid tumors. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2018;8(2):232251.

  • 26.

    Rojko JL, Hoover EA, Martin SL. Histologic interpretation of cutaneous biopsies from dogs with dermatologic disorders. Vet Pathol. 1978;15:579589.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Garrido G, Andreu J, Herrera-Acosta E, et al. Looking to the subcutaneous tissue. In: Proceedings of the European Congress of Radiology. European Society of Radiology; 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Theerawatanasirikul S, Suriyaphol G, Thanawongnuwech R, Sailasuta A. Histologic morphology and involucrin, filaggrin, and keratin expression in normal canine skin from dogs of different breeds and coat types. J Vet Sci. 2012;13(2):163170.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Heo S, Hwang T, Lee HC. Ultrasonographic evaluation of skin thickness in small breed dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. J Vet Sci. 2018;19(6):840845.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Affolter VK, Moore PF. Histologic features of normal canine and feline skin. Clin Dermatol. 1994;12(4):491497.

  • 31.

    Johnson PJ, Elders R, Pey P, Dennis R. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging features of inflammatory versus neoplastic medial retropharyngeal lymph node mass lesions in dogs and cats. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2016;57(1):2432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Ballegeer EA, Adams WM, Dubielzig RR, Paoloni MC, Klauer JM, Keuler NS. Computed tomography characteristics of canine tracheobronchial lymph node metastasis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010;51(4):397403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Belotta AF, Gomes MC, Rocha NS, et al. Sonography and sonoelastography in the detection of malignancy in superficial lymph nodes of dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(3):14031413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Kayanuma H, Yamada K, Maruo T, Kanai E. Computed tomography of thoracic lymph nodes in 100 dogs with no abnormalities in the dominated area. J Vet Med Sci. 2020;82(3):279285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Katz DS, Ganson G, Klein MA, Mazzie JP. CT of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Emerg Radiol. 2013;20(1):5768.

  • 36.

    Juopperi TA, Cesta M, Tomlinson L, Grindem CB. Extensive cutaneous metastases in a dog with duodenal adenocarcinoma. Vet Clin Pathol. 2003;32(2):8891.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Fontaine J, Heimann M, Day MJ. Canine cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma: a review of 30 cases. Vet Dermatol. 2010;21(3):267275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Torres SM. Sterile nodular dermatitis in dogs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1999;29(6):13111323.

  • 39.

    Kamstrup MR, Gniadecki R, Friberg L. Integrated positron-emission tomography and computed tomography manifestations of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Arch Dermatol. 2012;148(12):14201422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Computed tomographic findings and clinical features in dogs with canine cutaneous lymphoma: 10 cases (2007–2018)

Thom C. Watton BVetMed (Hons)1, Katarzyna Purzycka DVM, MVetMed1, and Ella Fitzgerald MVB, MVetMed1
View More View Less
  • 1 From the Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Royal Veterinary College, North Mymms, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report clinical features, CT findings, treatment protocols, and outcomes for dogs in which canine cutaneous lymphoma (CCL) was diagnosed.

ANIMALS

10 client-owned dogs with CCL.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs in which a diagnosis of CCL had been made between September 2007 and July 2018 and in which CT had been performed prior to treatment were reviewed. All available CT studies were reviewed, and an anatomical reference system was developed to map observed lesions. Treatment protocols and patient outcomes were summarized.

RESULTS

14 CT examinations were performed on the 10 dogs, and 9 dogs had lesions consistent with CCL on CT images. Nodular lesions were present in 8 dogs, and cutaneous or subcutaneous mass lesions were seen in 3. Well-defined, diffusely distributed, contrast-enhancing, cutaneous or subcutaneous nodules were most common; mass lesions were more variable in appearance. Nine dogs had lymphadenopathy, with the mandibular and axillary lymph nodes most commonly affected. Four dogs had confirmed nodal involvement, and 4 had confirmed visceral involvement. Nine dogs received treatment with chemotherapy, and 5 had a complete response.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that dogs with CCL may have a wide spectrum of CT findings. Many of these lesions, including affected lymph nodes, would be unlikely to be detected clinically, suggesting that CT may be a useful modality to assess the severity of disease and for guiding selection of local versus systemic treatment.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report clinical features, CT findings, treatment protocols, and outcomes for dogs in which canine cutaneous lymphoma (CCL) was diagnosed.

ANIMALS

10 client-owned dogs with CCL.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs in which a diagnosis of CCL had been made between September 2007 and July 2018 and in which CT had been performed prior to treatment were reviewed. All available CT studies were reviewed, and an anatomical reference system was developed to map observed lesions. Treatment protocols and patient outcomes were summarized.

RESULTS

14 CT examinations were performed on the 10 dogs, and 9 dogs had lesions consistent with CCL on CT images. Nodular lesions were present in 8 dogs, and cutaneous or subcutaneous mass lesions were seen in 3. Well-defined, diffusely distributed, contrast-enhancing, cutaneous or subcutaneous nodules were most common; mass lesions were more variable in appearance. Nine dogs had lymphadenopathy, with the mandibular and axillary lymph nodes most commonly affected. Four dogs had confirmed nodal involvement, and 4 had confirmed visceral involvement. Nine dogs received treatment with chemotherapy, and 5 had a complete response.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that dogs with CCL may have a wide spectrum of CT findings. Many of these lesions, including affected lymph nodes, would be unlikely to be detected clinically, suggesting that CT may be a useful modality to assess the severity of disease and for guiding selection of local versus systemic treatment.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Watton (twatton@rvc.ac.uk).