• 1.

    Pedersen HD, Häggström J. Mitral valve prolapse in the dog: a model of mitral valve prolapse in man. Cardiovasc Res. 2000;47(2):234243.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Borgarelli M, Buchanan JW. Historical review, epidemiology and natural history of degenerative mitral valve disease. J Vet Cardiol. 2012;14(1):93101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Beardow AW, Buchanan JW. Chronic mitral valve disease in cavalier King Charles Spaniels: 95 cases (1987–1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;203(7):10231029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Olsen LH, Martinussen T, Pedersen HD. Early echocardiographic predictors of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dachshunds. Vet Rec. 2003;152(10):293297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Olsen LH, Fredholm M, Pedersen HD. Epidemiology and inheritance of mitral valve prolapse in Dachshunds. J Vet Intern Med. 1999;13(5):448456.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Swift S, Baldin A, Cripps P. Degenerative valvular disease in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel: results of the UK breed scheme 1991–2010. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31(1):914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Meurs KM, Adin D, O'Donnell K, et al. Myxomatous mitral valve disease in the miniature poodle: a retrospective study. Vet J. 2019;244:9497.

  • 8.

    Mattin MJ, Boswood A, Church DB, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for degenerative mitral valve disease in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. J Vet Intern Med. 2015;29(3):847854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    The most popular dog breeds of 2019. American Kennel Club. Accessed April 19, 2020. https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/dog-breeds/2020-popular-breeds-2019/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Parker HG, Dreger DL, Rimbault M, et al. Genomic analyses reveal the influence of geographic origin, migration, and hybridization on modern dog breed development. Cell Rep. 2017;19(4):697708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Mellanby RJ, Ogden R, Clements DN, et al. Population structure and genetic heterogeneity in popular dog breeds in the UK. Vet J. 2013;196(1):9297.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Parker HG. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds. Mamm Genome. 2012;23(1–2):1927.

  • 13.

    Thrusfield MV, Aitken CG, Darker PG. Observations on breed and sex in relation to canine heart valve incompetence. J Small Anim Pract. 1985;26:709717.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Egenvall A, Bonnett BN, Häggström J. Heart disease as a cause of death in insured Swedish dogs younger than 10 years of age. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20(4):894903.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Borgarelli M, Häggström J. Canine degenerative myxomatous mitral valve disease: natural history, clinical presentation and therapy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010;40(4):651663.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Buchanan JW. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in radiographs. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000;30(2):379393.

  • 17.

    Lamb CR, Wikeley H, Boswood A, et al. Use of breed-specific ranges for the vertebral heart scale as an aid to the radiographic diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs. Vet Rec. 2001;148(23):707711.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Jepsen-Grant K, Pollard RE, Johnson LR. Vertebral heart scores in eight dog breeds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2013;54:38.

  • 19.

    Ljungvall I, Haggstrom J. Adult-onset valvular heart disease. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, Cote E, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 8th ed. Elsevier; 2017:12491268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Cornell CC, Kittleson MD, Della Torre P, et al. Allometric scaling of M-mode cardiac measurements in normal adult dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18(3):311321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Reinero C, Visser LC, Kellihan HB, et al. ACVIM Consensus statement guidelines for the diagnosis, classification, treatment, and monitoring of pulmonary hypertension in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2020;34(2):549573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Keene BW, Atkins CE, Bonagura JD, et al. ACVIM consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2019;33(3):11271140.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Chetboul V, Tissier R, Villaret F, et al. Epidemiological, clinical, echo-doppler characteristics of mitral valve endocardiosis in Cavalier King Charles in France: a retrospective study of 451 cases (1995 to 2003). Article in French. Can Vet J. 2004;45(12):10121015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Garncarz M, Parzeniecka-Jaworska M, Jank M, Łój M. A retrospective study of clinical signs and epidemiology of chronic valve disease in a group of 207 Dachshunds in Poland. Acta Vet Scand. 2013;55(1):52.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kim HT, Han SM, Song WJ, et al. Retrospective study of degenerative mitral valve disease in small-breed dogs: survival and prognostic variables. J Vet Sci. 2017;18(3):369376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Gordon SG, Saunders AB, Wesselowski SR. Asymptomatic canine degenerative valve disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2017;47(5):955975.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Beaumier A, Rush JE, Yang VK, Freeman LM. Clinical findings and survival time in dogs with advanced heart failure. J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32(3):944950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Ward J, Ware W, Viall A. Association between atrial fibrillation and right-sided manifestations of congestive heart failure in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. J Vet Cardiol. 2019;21:1827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Ferasin L, Crews L, Biller DS, Lamb KE, Borgarelli M. Risk factors for coughing in dogs with naturally acquired myxomatous mitral valve disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(2):286292.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Johnson LR, Fales WH. Clinical and microbiologic findings in dogs with bronchoscopically diagnosed tracheal collapse: 37 cases (1990–1995). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219(9):12471250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Macready DM, Johnson LR, Pollard RE. Fluoroscopic and radiographic evaluation of tracheal collapse in dogs: 62 cases (2001–2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230(12):18701876.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Myxomatous mitral valve disease in Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers: 134 cases (2007–2016)

View More View Less
  • 1 From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize features of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers.

ANIMALS

69 Miniature Schnauzers and 65 Yorkshire Terriers, each with MMVD.

PROCEDURES

Medical record data for each dog were collected; the study period was January 2007 through December 2016. If available, radiographic data were evaluated, and a vertebral heart scale score was assigned for each dog. Statistical analysis was performed with Student t and Fisher exact tests.

RESULTS

Compared with Yorkshire Terriers, the prevalence of MMVD was significantly higher in Miniature Schnauzers and affected dogs were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis. Miniature Schnauzers were significantly more likely to have mitral valve prolapse and syncope, compared with Yorkshire Terriers. Yorkshire Terriers were significantly more likely to have coughing and have had previous or current treatment with cardiac medications, compared with Miniature Schnauzers. There was no statistical difference between breeds with regard to abnormally high vertebral heart scale scores or radiographic evidence of congestive heart failure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

With regard to MMVD, features of the disease among Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers were similar, but there were also a few discernable differences between these 2 breeds and from historical findings for dogs with MMVD of other breeds. Clinical signs at the time of diagnosis differed between the 2 breeds, which may have reflected concurrent breed-specific conditions (sick sinus syndrome or airway disease [eg, tracheal collapse]). Future work should include prospective studies to provide additional information regarding the natural progression of MMVD in these dog breeds.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize features of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers.

ANIMALS

69 Miniature Schnauzers and 65 Yorkshire Terriers, each with MMVD.

PROCEDURES

Medical record data for each dog were collected; the study period was January 2007 through December 2016. If available, radiographic data were evaluated, and a vertebral heart scale score was assigned for each dog. Statistical analysis was performed with Student t and Fisher exact tests.

RESULTS

Compared with Yorkshire Terriers, the prevalence of MMVD was significantly higher in Miniature Schnauzers and affected dogs were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis. Miniature Schnauzers were significantly more likely to have mitral valve prolapse and syncope, compared with Yorkshire Terriers. Yorkshire Terriers were significantly more likely to have coughing and have had previous or current treatment with cardiac medications, compared with Miniature Schnauzers. There was no statistical difference between breeds with regard to abnormally high vertebral heart scale scores or radiographic evidence of congestive heart failure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

With regard to MMVD, features of the disease among Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers were similar, but there were also a few discernable differences between these 2 breeds and from historical findings for dogs with MMVD of other breeds. Clinical signs at the time of diagnosis differed between the 2 breeds, which may have reflected concurrent breed-specific conditions (sick sinus syndrome or airway disease [eg, tracheal collapse]). Future work should include prospective studies to provide additional information regarding the natural progression of MMVD in these dog breeds.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Meurs (kate_meurs@ncsu.edu).