Resolution of hypoalbuminemia in a 3-year-old hound-mix dog after discontinuation of oclacitinib

Karthika Parvathy University Animal Hospital, New York, NY

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 BVSc&AH, MPH

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Albumins are protein molecules that account for 50% of total plasma protein. They are imperative in maintaining intravascular colloidal oncotic pressure, act as key scavenger molecules for oxygen free radicals, and perform a major role in transporting numerous substances and in wound healing. Hypoalbuminemia has been reported as the consequence of decreased intake, increased loss, decreased production, and redistribution. While anecdotal evidence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors causing hypoalbuminemia in canine patients exists, to the author’s knowledge there is no formal report to this effect to date. This case report aims to bridge the gap between anecdotal evidence and literature.

ANIMAL

3-year-old neutered male hound-mix canine.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The patient was presented for recurrent otitis externa refractory to treatments with orbifloxacin/mometasone/posaconazole otic suspension, miconazole/polymyxin B/prednisolone otic suspension, ketoconazole/TrizEDTA, and gentamicin/mometasone/clotrimazole, which prompted consideration of oral antifungals. Baseline blood work prior to initiation of fluconazole showed elevated alkaline phosphatase. Treatment was initiated with fluconazole, and blood work was rechecked and revealed hypoalbuminemia. Multiple diagnostic tests failed to reveal a cause of hypoalbuminemia.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Discontinuation of oclacitinib that the patient was being administered resulted in normalization of serum albumin.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

It is unclear whether hypoalbuminemia associated with oclacitinib administration is associated with worse outcomes for pathologies in canine patients; however, this seems to be the case in humans according to some reports. This report aims to take a step in the direction of this knowledge.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Albumins are protein molecules that account for 50% of total plasma protein. They are imperative in maintaining intravascular colloidal oncotic pressure, act as key scavenger molecules for oxygen free radicals, and perform a major role in transporting numerous substances and in wound healing. Hypoalbuminemia has been reported as the consequence of decreased intake, increased loss, decreased production, and redistribution. While anecdotal evidence of tyrosine kinase inhibitors causing hypoalbuminemia in canine patients exists, to the author’s knowledge there is no formal report to this effect to date. This case report aims to bridge the gap between anecdotal evidence and literature.

ANIMAL

3-year-old neutered male hound-mix canine.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The patient was presented for recurrent otitis externa refractory to treatments with orbifloxacin/mometasone/posaconazole otic suspension, miconazole/polymyxin B/prednisolone otic suspension, ketoconazole/TrizEDTA, and gentamicin/mometasone/clotrimazole, which prompted consideration of oral antifungals. Baseline blood work prior to initiation of fluconazole showed elevated alkaline phosphatase. Treatment was initiated with fluconazole, and blood work was rechecked and revealed hypoalbuminemia. Multiple diagnostic tests failed to reveal a cause of hypoalbuminemia.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Discontinuation of oclacitinib that the patient was being administered resulted in normalization of serum albumin.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

It is unclear whether hypoalbuminemia associated with oclacitinib administration is associated with worse outcomes for pathologies in canine patients; however, this seems to be the case in humans according to some reports. This report aims to take a step in the direction of this knowledge.

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