Systolic blood pressure measurements with Doppler ultrasonic flow detector and high-definition oscillometry are comparable on population level but show large intra-individual differences in apparently healthy elderly dogs

Sofie Marynissen Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

Search for other papers by Sofie Marynissen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DECVIM
,
Gaëlle Schils Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

Search for other papers by Gaëlle Schils in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Lisa Stammeleer Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

Search for other papers by Lisa Stammeleer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DECVIM
,
Sylvie Daminet Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

Search for other papers by Sylvie Daminet in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DECVIM, DACVIM, PhD
,
Pascale Smets Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

Search for other papers by Pascale Smets in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DECVIM, PhD
, and
Dominique Paepe Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium

Search for other papers by Dominique Paepe in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DECVIM, PhD

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Agreement of systolic blood pressure measurements (SBP) between noninvasive blood pressure devices in conscious dogs is poorly studied. Situational hypertension is expected in clinics, but studies are lacking. This study aimed to compare SBP measurements obtained with Doppler ultrasonic flow detector (Doppler) versus high-definition oscillometry (HDO) in clinics and at home and to estimate the prevalence of situational hypertension in conscious, apparently healthy elderly dogs.

ANIMALS

122 apparently healthy elderly or geriatric dogs were prospectively recruited.

PROCEDURES

Systolic blood pressure was obtained consecutively with Doppler and HDO techniques in a randomized order per dog, following a standardized protocol. An at-home measurement was advised for in-clinic hypertensive dogs (SBP ≥ 160 mmHg), also using both devices.

RESULTS

Dual measurements were available in 102 dogs. Median SBP was 147.3 mmHg (range, 105 to 239 mmHg) for Doppler and 152.3 mmHg (range, 113 to 221 mmHg) for HDO. Forty-six percent (56/122) were hypertensive, of which 9% (11/122) were hypertensive with both methods. No significant difference was found between the 2 devices in the global study population or within the group of hypertensive dogs. Repeated at-home measurements were performed in 20/56 (35.7%) hypertensive dogs, resulting in a 10 and 26 mmHg lower median SBP value for Doppler and HDO, respectively (P > .05). In-clinic situational hypertension was presumed in 8/20 (40%) dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The choice of the noninvasive blood pressure device did not significantly impact SBP results, but large interindividual differences in SBP between techniques occurred. Situational hypertension was frequently observed in clinic.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Agreement of systolic blood pressure measurements (SBP) between noninvasive blood pressure devices in conscious dogs is poorly studied. Situational hypertension is expected in clinics, but studies are lacking. This study aimed to compare SBP measurements obtained with Doppler ultrasonic flow detector (Doppler) versus high-definition oscillometry (HDO) in clinics and at home and to estimate the prevalence of situational hypertension in conscious, apparently healthy elderly dogs.

ANIMALS

122 apparently healthy elderly or geriatric dogs were prospectively recruited.

PROCEDURES

Systolic blood pressure was obtained consecutively with Doppler and HDO techniques in a randomized order per dog, following a standardized protocol. An at-home measurement was advised for in-clinic hypertensive dogs (SBP ≥ 160 mmHg), also using both devices.

RESULTS

Dual measurements were available in 102 dogs. Median SBP was 147.3 mmHg (range, 105 to 239 mmHg) for Doppler and 152.3 mmHg (range, 113 to 221 mmHg) for HDO. Forty-six percent (56/122) were hypertensive, of which 9% (11/122) were hypertensive with both methods. No significant difference was found between the 2 devices in the global study population or within the group of hypertensive dogs. Repeated at-home measurements were performed in 20/56 (35.7%) hypertensive dogs, resulting in a 10 and 26 mmHg lower median SBP value for Doppler and HDO, respectively (P > .05). In-clinic situational hypertension was presumed in 8/20 (40%) dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The choice of the noninvasive blood pressure device did not significantly impact SBP results, but large interindividual differences in SBP between techniques occurred. Situational hypertension was frequently observed in clinic.

  • 1.

    Jacob F, Polzin DJ, Osborne CA, et al. Association between initial systolic blood pressure and risk of developing a uremic crisis or of dying in dogs with chronic renal failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222(3):322-329. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.222.322

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Finco DR. Association of systemic hypertension with renal injury in dogs with induced renal failure. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18(3):289-294. doi:10.1892/0891-6640(2004)18<289:aoshwr>2.0.co;2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Ortega TM, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, Willits N, Cowgill LD. Systemic arterial blood pressure and urine protein/creatinine ratio in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1996;209(10):1724-1729.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Barthez PY, Marks SL, Woo J, Feldman EC, Matteucci M. Pheochromocytoma in dogs: 61 cases (1984-1995). J Vet Intern Med. 1997;11(5):272-278. doi:10.1111/j.1939-1676.1997.tb00464.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Struble AL, Feldman EC, Nelson RW, Kass PH. Systemic hypertension and proteinuria in dogs with diabetes mellitus. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998;213(6):822-825.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Marynissen SJJ, Smets PMY, Ghys LFE, et al. Long-term follow-up of renal function assessing serum cystatin C in dogs with diabetes mellitus or hyperadrenocorticism. Vet Clin Pathol. 2016;45(2):320-329. doi:10.1111/vcp.12365

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Herring IP, Panciera DL, Werre SR. Longitudinal prevalence of hypertension, proteinuria, and retinopathy in dogs with spontaneous diabetes mellitus. J Vet Intern Med. 2014;28(2):488-495. doi:10.1111/jvim.12286

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Acierno MJ, Brown S, Coleman AE, et al. ACVIM consensus statement: guidelines for the identification, evaluation, and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med. 2018;32(6):1803-1822. doi:10.1111/jvim.15331

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lyberg M, Ljungvall I, Häggström J, Ahlund E, Pelander L. Impact of equipment and handling on systolic blood pressure measurements in conscious dogs in an animal hospital environment. J Vet Intern Med. 2021;35(2):739-746. doi:10.1111/jvim.16062

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Haskins S. Monitoring anesthetized patients. In: Grimm KA, Lamont LA, Tranquilli WJ, Greene SA, Robertson SA, eds. Lumb and Jones Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. 5th ed. Wiley Blackwell; 2015:86-113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Skelding A, Valverde A. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement in animals: part 1 — techniques for measurement and validation of non-invasive devices. Can Vet J. 2020;61(4):368-374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Haberman CE, Kang CW, Morgan JD, Brown SA. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic methods of indirect blood pressure estimation in conscious dogs. Can J Vet Res. 2006;70(3):211-217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Stepien RL, Rapoport GS, Henik RA, Wenholz L, Thomas CB. Comparative diagnostic test characteristics of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonographic methods in the detection of systolic hypertension in dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17(1):65-72. doi:10.1892/0891-6640(2003)017<0065:cdtcoo>2.3.co;2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Willems A, Paepe D, Marynissen S, et al. Results of screening of apparently healthy senior and geriatric dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2017;31(1):81-92. doi:10.1111/jvim.14587

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Safar M. Ageing and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Drugs. 1990;39(suppl 1):1-8. doi:10.2165/00003495-199000391-00003

  • 16.

    Elliott WJ. Systemic hypertension. Curr Probl Cardiol. 2007;32(4):201-259. doi:10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2007.01.002

  • 17.

    Meurs KM, Miller MW, Slater MR, Glaze K. Arterial blood pressure measurement in a population of healthy geriatric dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2000;36(6):497-500. doi:10.5326/15473317-36-6-497

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bodey AR, Michell AR. Epidemiological study of blood pressure in domestic dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 1996;37(3):116-125. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.1996.tb02358.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Tuo J, Godai K, Kabayama M, et al. Self-monitoring home blood pressure in community-dwelling older people: age differences in white-coat and masked phenomena and related factors—the SONIC study. Int J Hypertens. 2022;2022:5359428. doi:10.1155/2022/5359428

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Parati G, Stergiouc G, O’Briend E, et al; European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability. European Society of Hypertension practice guidelines for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. J Hypertens. 2014;32(7):1359-1366. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000000221

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Schellenberg S, Glaus TM, Reusch CE. Effect of long-term adaptation on indirect measurements of systolic blood pressure in conscious untrained beagles. Vet Rec. 2007;161(12):418-421. doi:10.1136/vr.161.12.418

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Koo ST, Carr AP. Comparison of home blood pressure and office blood pressure measurement in dogs and cats. Can J Vet Res. 2022;86(3):203-208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Remillard RL, Ross JN, Eddy JB. Variance of indirect blood pressure measurements and prevalence of hypertension in clinically normal dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1991;52(4):561-565.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Kallet AJ, Cowgill LD, Kass PH. Comparison of blood pressure measurements obtained in dogs by use of indirect oscillometry in a veterinary clinic versus at home. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;210(5):651-654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Fortney WD. Implementing a successful senior/geriatric health care program for veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and office managers. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2012;42(4):823-834, viii. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2012.04.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Random integer generator. Random.org. Accessed March 20, 2019. https://www.random.org/integers/

  • 27.

    Lloyd JKF. Minimizing stress for patients in the veterinary hospital: why it is important and what can be done about it. Vet Sci. 2017;4(2):22. doi:10.3390/vetsci4020022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Mitchell N. Approach to ocular examination in small animals. In Pract. 2011;33(4):146-154. doi:10.1136/inp.d1810

  • 29.

    Leblanc NL, Stepien RL, Bentley E. Ocular lesions associated with systemic hypertension in dogs: 65 cases (2005-2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2011;238(7):915-921. doi:10.2460/javma.238.7.915

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Freeman L, Becvarova I, Cave N, et al; WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines Task Force Members. Nutritional assessment guidelines. J Small Anim Pract. 2011;52(7):385-396. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01079.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet. 1986;1(8476):307-310. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90837-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Martel E, Egner B, Brown SA, et al. Comparison of high-definition oscillometry-a non-invasive technology for arterial blood pressure measurement-with a direct invasive method using radio-telemetry in awake healthy cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(12):1104-1113. doi:10.1177/1098612X13495025

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Paepe D, Verjans G, Duchateau L, Piron K, Ghys L, Daminet S. Routine health screening: findings in apparently healthy middle-aged and old cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2013;15(1):8-19. doi:10.1177/1098612X12464628

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Seliškar A, Zrimšek P, Sredenšek J, Petrič AD. Comparison of high definition oscillometric and Doppler ultrasound devices with invasive blood pressure in anaesthetized dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2013;40(1):21-27. doi:10.1111/j.1467-2995.2012.00774.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Vachon C, Belanger MC, Burns PM. Evaluation of oscillometric and Doppler ultrasonic devices for blood pressure measurements in anesthetized and conscious dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2014;97(1):111-117. doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2014.05.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Skelding A, Valverde A. Review of non-invasive blood pressure measurement in animals: part 2 — evaluation of the performance of non-invasive devices. Can Vet J. 2020;61(5):481-498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Meyer O, Jenni R, Greiter-Wilke A, Breidenbach A, Holzgrefe HH. Comparison of telemetry and high-definition oscillometry for blood pressure measurements in conscious dogs: effects of torcetrapib. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2010;49(4):464-471. doi:10.1016/j.vascn.2010.11.084

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Mooney AP, Mawby DI, Price JM, Whittemore JC. Effects of various factors on Doppler flow ultrasonic radial and coccygeal artery systolic blood pressure measurements in privately-owned, conscious dogs. PeerJ. 2017;5:e3101. doi:10.7717/peerj.3101

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Chetboul V, Tissier R, Gouni V, et al. Comparison of Doppler ultrasonography and high-definition oscillometry for blood pressure measurements in healthy awake dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2010;71(7):766-772. doi:10.2460/ajvr.71.7.766

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Pickering TG, Eguchi K, Kario K. Masked hypertension: a review. Hypertens Res. 2007;30(6):479-488. doi:10.1291/hypres.30.479

Advertisement