Ketamine–dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthesia, with or without different doses of atipamezole in the postoperative period, for orchiectomy in cats

Viviane H. Gomes Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Castelo Branco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ, Brazil

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Wagner T. S. de Carvalho Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Castelo Branco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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Vitor C. Pimentel Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Castelo Branco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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Naomi Cappelli Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Castelo Branco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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Bruna T. G. Mignani Department of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Castelo Branco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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Marta F. A. da Silva Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, RJ, Brazil

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of ketamine–dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthesia, associated or not in the postoperative period with different doses of atipamezole, for orchiectomy in cats.

ANIMALS

24 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats received ketamine (7 mg/kg) combined with dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg) IM, and 1 mL of saline (group KDSAL), 25 µg/kg (group KDAT25), or 50 µg/kg (group KDAT50) of atipamezole IV, postoperatively. All cats received local anesthesia (2 mg/kg of lidocaine) intratesticular and SC. Physiologic variables were recorded at baseline and at time points during anesthesia. Ketamine rescue dose (1 mg/kg) was recorded. The quality of recovery, the degree of sedation, and side effects were evaluated postoperatively.

RESULTS

2 cats received a single additional bolus of ketamine to perform local anesthesia. Heart rate was lower in KDSAL, KDAT25, and KDAT50 during anesthesia, compared with baseline. Hypertension was observed intraoperatively in all groups. The time to head up, pedal reflex regained time, time to sternal recumbency, and time to standing were shorter in KDAT25 and KDAT50 compared to KDSAL. Lower sedation scores were assigned sooner to KDAT25 and KDAT50 than KDSAL. All groups resulted in low recovery quality scores and no side effects.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

At the doses used, ketamine–dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthesia allowed the performance of orchiectomy. Rescue dose of ketamine for performing local anesthesia may be required. This combination can result in hypertension. Both atipamezole doses shortened the anesthetic recovery, without differences among them, and side effects.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of ketamine–dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthesia, associated or not in the postoperative period with different doses of atipamezole, for orchiectomy in cats.

ANIMALS

24 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats received ketamine (7 mg/kg) combined with dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg) IM, and 1 mL of saline (group KDSAL), 25 µg/kg (group KDAT25), or 50 µg/kg (group KDAT50) of atipamezole IV, postoperatively. All cats received local anesthesia (2 mg/kg of lidocaine) intratesticular and SC. Physiologic variables were recorded at baseline and at time points during anesthesia. Ketamine rescue dose (1 mg/kg) was recorded. The quality of recovery, the degree of sedation, and side effects were evaluated postoperatively.

RESULTS

2 cats received a single additional bolus of ketamine to perform local anesthesia. Heart rate was lower in KDSAL, KDAT25, and KDAT50 during anesthesia, compared with baseline. Hypertension was observed intraoperatively in all groups. The time to head up, pedal reflex regained time, time to sternal recumbency, and time to standing were shorter in KDAT25 and KDAT50 compared to KDSAL. Lower sedation scores were assigned sooner to KDAT25 and KDAT50 than KDSAL. All groups resulted in low recovery quality scores and no side effects.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

At the doses used, ketamine–dexmedetomidine combined with local anesthesia allowed the performance of orchiectomy. Rescue dose of ketamine for performing local anesthesia may be required. This combination can result in hypertension. Both atipamezole doses shortened the anesthetic recovery, without differences among them, and side effects.

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