Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is increased in dogs with acute congestive heart failure secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease compared to both dogs with heart murmurs and healthy controls

Dylan J. DeProspero Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

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Rebecka S. Hess Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

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Deborah C. Silverstein Department of Clinical Sciences and Advanced Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To retrospectively evaluate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as a biomarker for severity and short-term outcomes of congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs.

ANIMALS

47 dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD, 47 dogs with presumptive preclinical MMVD, and 47 control dogs.

METHODS

Medical record data (signalment, physical examination findings, medical treatments instituted, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine MMVD stage, length of hospitalization, outcome, and hospital re-presentation due to CHF) from March 2012 through March 2022 for each dog were collected. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney, Spearman correlation, and Fisher exact tests.

RESULTS

NLR (but not PLR) was significantly higher in dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD (6.41) compared to presumptive preclinical MMVD dogs (4.66; P < .001) and control dogs (3.95; P < .001). Dogs with higher NLR and PLR received significantly higher cumulative dosages of loop-diuretic therapy during hospitalization (ρ = 0.3, P = .04; and ρ = 0.4, P = .02, respectively). There was a positive association between NLR and duration of oxygen supplementation within the CHF group (ρ = 0.4; P = .01).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The increased diuretic dose and time receiving oxygen supplementation may represent increased disease severity for which NLR (and to a lesser extent PLR) may serve as a readily available marker. The data presented provide information regarding some of the systemic inflammatory changes seen in CHF secondary to MMVD in dogs. Future research should include prospective, longitudinal studies to provide insight into the long-term prognostic value of NLR and PLR in dogs with CHF.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To retrospectively evaluate neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as a biomarker for severity and short-term outcomes of congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs.

ANIMALS

47 dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD, 47 dogs with presumptive preclinical MMVD, and 47 control dogs.

METHODS

Medical record data (signalment, physical examination findings, medical treatments instituted, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine MMVD stage, length of hospitalization, outcome, and hospital re-presentation due to CHF) from March 2012 through March 2022 for each dog were collected. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney, Spearman correlation, and Fisher exact tests.

RESULTS

NLR (but not PLR) was significantly higher in dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD (6.41) compared to presumptive preclinical MMVD dogs (4.66; P < .001) and control dogs (3.95; P < .001). Dogs with higher NLR and PLR received significantly higher cumulative dosages of loop-diuretic therapy during hospitalization (ρ = 0.3, P = .04; and ρ = 0.4, P = .02, respectively). There was a positive association between NLR and duration of oxygen supplementation within the CHF group (ρ = 0.4; P = .01).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The increased diuretic dose and time receiving oxygen supplementation may represent increased disease severity for which NLR (and to a lesser extent PLR) may serve as a readily available marker. The data presented provide information regarding some of the systemic inflammatory changes seen in CHF secondary to MMVD in dogs. Future research should include prospective, longitudinal studies to provide insight into the long-term prognostic value of NLR and PLR in dogs with CHF.

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