• 1.

    Brooks DE. Equine ophthalmology. In: Proceedings of the 48th Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. American Association of Equine Practitioners. 2002:300313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Scotty NC. Equine keratomycosis. Clin Tech Equine Pract. 2005;4:2936.

  • 3.

    Clode AB. Therapy of equine infectious keratitis: a review. Equine Vet J. 2010;(suppl 37):1923.

  • 4.

    Cichocki BM, Myrna KE, Moore PA. Modified penetrating keratoplasty with Acell® bioscaffold implant in seven horses with deep full-thickness corneal stromal abscess. Vet Ophthalmol. 2017;20(1):4652.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Bussieres M, Krohne SG, Stiles J, Townsend WM. The use of porcine small intestinal submucosa for the repair of full-thickness corneal defects in dogs, cats and horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2004;7(5):352359.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Galán A, Martín-Suárez EM, Gallardo JM, Molleda JM. Clinical findings and progression of 10 cases of equine ulcerative keratomycosis (2004–2007). Equine Vet Educ. 2009;21:236242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Galera PD, Brooks DE. Optimal management of equine keratomycosis. Vet Med (Auckl). 2012;3:717.

  • 8.

    Hendrix DV, Brooks DE, Smith PJ, et al. Corneal stromal abscesses in the horse: a review of 24 cases. Equine Vet J. 1995;27(6):440447.

  • 9.

    Henriksen MDL, Andersen PH, Plummer CE, Mangan B, Brooks DE. Equine corneal stromal abscesses: an evolution in the understanding of pathogenesis and treatment during the past 30 years. Equine Vet Educ. 2013;25(6):315323.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Lassaline ME, Brooks DE, Ollivier FJ, Komaromy AM, Kalberg M, Gelatt KN. Equine amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal ulceration and keratomalacia in three horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2005;8(5):311317.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Ledbetter EC. Antifungal therapy in equine ocular mycotic infections. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2017;33(3):583605.

  • 12.

    Plummer CE, Kallberg ME, Ollivier FJ, Barrie KP, Brooks DE. Deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty in 10 horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2008;11(suppl 1):3543.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Smith KM, Maxwell L, Gull T, Payton ME, Gilmour MA. Stability of 1% voriconazole solution in a constant-rate infusion pump for topical ocular delivery to horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2014;17(suppl 1):8289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Tsujita H, Plummer CE. Corneal stromal abscessation in two horses treated with intracorneal and subconjunctival injection of 1% voriconazole solution. Vet Ophthalmol. 2013;16(6):451458.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Voelter-Ratson K, Pot SA, Florin M, Spiess BM. Equine keratomycosis in Switzerland: a retrospective evaluation of 35 horses (January 2000-August 2011). Equine Vet J. 2013;45(5):608612.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Wilkie DA. Ophthalmic procedures and surgery in the standing horse. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1991;7:535547.

  • 17.

    Jacobi S, Townsend WM, Bolin CA. Proliferation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a simulated subpalpebral lavage flushed with equine serum. Vet Ophthalmol. 2009;12:343349.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Read T. Equine ocular lavage systems. In Pract. 1995;17:271275.

  • 19.

    Giuliano EA, Maggs DJ, Moore CP, et al. Inferomedial placement of a single-entry subpalpebral lavage tube for treatment of equine eye disease. Vet Ophthalmol. 2000;3:153156.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Sweeney CR, Russell GE. Complications associated with use of a one-hole subpalpebral lavage system in horses: 150 cases (1977–1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1997;211:12711274.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Dwyer AE. How to insert and manage a subpalpebral lavage system. In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. American Association of Equine Practitioners. 2013:164173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wada S, Hobo S, Ode H, Niwa H, Moriyama H. Equine keratomycosis in Japan. Vet Ophthalmol. 2013;16(1):19. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05230.x

  • 23.

    McMullen RJ Jr, Gilger BC, Michau TM. Modified lamellar keratoplasties for the treatment of deep stromal abscesses in horses. Vet Ophthalmol. 2015;18(5):393403.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Mustikka MP, Grönthal TSC, Pietilä EM. Equine infectious keratitis in Finland: associated microbial isolates and susceptibility profiles. Vet Ophthalmol. 2020;23(1):148159.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Smith KM, Pucket JD, Gilmour MA. Treatment of six cases of equine corneal stromal abscessation with intracorneal injection of 5% voriconazole solution. Vet Ophthalmol. 2014;17(suppl 1):179185.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Wolf ED. Medical treatment for corneal ulcers. In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. American Association of Equine Practitioners; 1991:161169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    de Linde Henriksen M, Andersen PH, Thomsen PD, et al. Equine deep stromal abscesses (51 cases - 2004–2009). Part 1: the clinical aspects with attention to the duration of the corneal disease, treatment history, clinical appearance, and microbiology results. Vet Ophthalmol. 2014;17(suppl 1):613.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Ardehali R, Shi L, Janatova J, Mohammad SF, Burns GL. The effect of apo-transferrin on bacterial adhesion to biomaterials. Artif Organs. 2002;26(6):512520.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Ollivier FJ, Brooks DE, Kallberg ME, et al. Evaluation of various compounds to inhibit activity of matrix metalloproteinases in the tear film of horses with ulcerative keratitis. Am J Vet Res. 2003;64(9):10811087.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    McLaughlin SA, Brightman AH, Helper LC, Manning JP, Tomes JE. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi associated with extraocular disease in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1983;182(3):241242.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Dorsally placed commercially available subpalpebral lavage systems have low complication rates in horses

Ruth M. Stewart BVM&S, MRCVS1, Amy C. Lack DVM, MS, DACVIM1, Mary R. Telle DVM, DACVO1, Jerald K. Ellis PhD2, and Caroline M. Betbeze DVM, MS, DACVO1
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS
  • | 2 Department of Mathematics, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To retrospectively evaluate the complication rate following dorsal placement of a commercially available 1-hole subpalpebral lavage system (SPL) at a veterinary teaching hospital.

ANIMALS

102 client-owned horses with ophthalmic disease.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of horses (2010 to 2020) with ophthalmic disease were reviewed to determine whether a commercially available SPL system was dorsally placed. Data collected from the medical record included signalment, presenting complaint(s), diagnosis, ophthalmic procedures performed, SPL laterality, hospital service that placed the SPL, anesthetic technique for placement (general anesthesia or sedation with local nerve blocks), duration of SPL management while hospitalized or at home, type of enclosure for the horse, use of eye protection, duration of time the SPL was in place, location of SPL management (home vs hospital), types and numbers of medications administered, recorded complications, and outcome of the globe. Complications experienced during treatment were categorized as either ocular or nonocular. The χ2 test for independence test and Fisher exact test were performed to examine the relationship between the department that placed the SPL, method of anesthesia, antimicrobial administration, type of facial protection used, and complication type and rate.

RESULTS

Overall complication rate for SPL systems was 29.1% (37/127), with 21.2% (27/127) being ocular complications and 7.9% (10/127) being nonocular complications. SPL complication rate was not affected by any variable that was examined.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Commercially available SPL systems placed dorsally have a low ocular complication rate. These SPL systems may be placed by veterinarians with varied training backgrounds and managed at home without significantly increasing complication rate.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Betbeze (cbetbeze@cvm.msstate.edu)