• 1.

    Fowler HN, Holzbauer SM, Smith KE, Scheftel JM. Survey of occupational hazards in Minnesota veterinary practices in 2012. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2016;248(2):207218. doi:10.2460/javma.248.2.207

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Poole AG, Shane SM, Kearney MT, McConnell DA. Survey of occupational hazards in large animal practices. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999;215(10):14331435.

  • 3.

    Poole AG, Shane SM, Kearney MT, Rehn W. Survey of occupational hazards in companion animal practices. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1998;212(9):13861388.

  • 4.

    Gibbins JD, MacMahon K. Workplace safety and health for the veterinary health care team. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2015;45(2):409426, vii–viii. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.11.006

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Nienhaus A, Skudlik C, Seidler A. Work-related accidents and occupational diseases in veterinarians and their staff. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005;78(3):230238. doi:10.1007/s00420-004-0583-5

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Landercasper J, Cogbill TH, Strutt PJ, Landercasper BO. Trauma and the veterinarian. J Trauma. 1988;28(8):12551259. doi:10.1097/00005373-198808000-00020

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Blair A, Hayes HM. Cancer and other causes of death among US veterinarians, 1966–1977. Int J Cancer. 1980;25(2):181185.

  • 8.

    Blair A, Hayes HM Jr. Mortality patterns among US veterinarians, 1947–1977: an expanded study. Int J Epidemiol. 1982;11(4):391397.

  • 9.

    Annual Data Report 2016–2017. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. Last modified January 2017. Accessed March 24, 2021. https://www.aavmc.org/data/files/data/2017%20aavmc%20public%20data-%20final.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Market research statistics—US veterinarians, 2019. AVMA. Last modified March 2020. Accessed March 24, 2021. https://www.avma.org/resources-tools/reports-statistics/market-research-statistics-us-veterinarians-2019#categories

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Hoblet KN, Maccabe AT, Heider LE. Veterinarians in population health and public practice: meeting critical national needs. J Vet Med Educ. 2003;30(3):287294. doi:10.3138/jvme.30.3.287

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Maccabe AT, Matchett KE, Hueston WD. The need for public-health veterinarians as seen by future employers. J Vet Med Educ. 2008;35(2):269274. doi:10.3138/jvme.35.2.269

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Botts RP, Edlavitch S, Payne G. Mortality of Missouri veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1966;149(5):499504.

  • 14.

    Miller JM, Beaumont JJ. Suicide, cancer, and other causes of death among California veterinarians, 1960–1992. Am J Ind Med. 1995;27(1):3749.

  • 15.

    Faragher T. Suicide in Australian veterinarians. Aust Vet J. 2008;86(7):249. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.2008.00323.x

  • 16.

    Bartram D. Suicide by veterinary surgeons. Vet Rec. 2008;162(4):132. doi:10.1136/vr.162.4.132-a

  • 17.

    Jones-Fairnie H, Ferroni P, Silburn S, Lawrence D. Suicide in Australian veterinarians. Aust Vet J. 2008;86(4):114116. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.2008.00277.x

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Hem E, Haldorsen T, Aasland OG, Tyssen R, Vaglum P, Ekeberg O. Suicide rates according to education with a particular focus on physicians in Norway 1960–2000. Psychol Med. 2005;35(6):873880. doi:10.1017/s0033291704003344

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Mellanby RJ. Incidence of suicide in the veterinary profession in England and Wales. Vet Rec. 2005;157(14):415417.

  • 20.

    National Death Index user’s guide. CDC National Center for Health Statistics. Last modified March 2013. Accessed March 24, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ndi/ndi_users_guide.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Tomasi SE, Fechter-Leggett ED, Edwards NT, Reddish AD, Crosby AE, Nett RJ. Suicide among veterinarians in the United States from 1979 through 2015. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2019;254(1):104112. doi:10.2460/javma.254.1.104

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Life Table Analysis System. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Last modified 2014. Accessed March 26, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ltas/pdf/LTAS-manual-2014.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Robinson CF, Schnorr TM, Cassinelli RT, et al. Tenth revision US mortality rates for use with the NIOSH Life Table Analysis System. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(7):662667. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000229968.74906.8f

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Roman E, Beral V, Inskip H, McDowall M, Adelstein A. A comparison of standardized and proportional mortality ratios. Stat Med. 1984;3(1):714.

  • 25.

    Rastrelli M, Tropea S, Rossi CR, Alaibac M. Melanoma: epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, diagnosis and classification. In Vivo. 2014;28(6):10051011.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Gandini S, Sera F, Cattaruzza MS, et al. Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure. Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(1):4560.

  • 27.

    Vågerö D, Swerdlow AJ, Beral V. Occupation and malignant melanoma: a study based on cancer registration data in England and Wales and in Sweden. Br J Ind Med. 1990;47(5):317324. doi:10.1136/oem.47.5.317

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Rix BA, Lynge E. Cancer incidence in Danish health care workers. Scand J Soc Med. 1996;24(2):114120. doi:10.1177/140349489602400205

  • 29.

    Eklund G, Izikowitz L, Molin C. Malignant tumours in Swedish dental personnel: a comparative study with the total population as well as with some specific occupational groups. Swed Dent J. 1990;14(6):249254.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Fritschi L. Cancer in veterinarians. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57(5):289. doi:10.1136/oem.57.5.289

  • 31.

    Webb PM, Jordan SJ. Epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2017;41:314. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2016.08.006

  • 32.

    Wentzensen N, Poole EM, Trabert B, et al. Ovarian cancer risk factors by histologic subtype: an analysis from the ovarian cancer cohort consortium. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(24):28882898. doi:10.1200/JCO.2016.66.8178

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Luan NN, Wu QJ, Gong TT, Vogtmann E, Wang YL, Lin B. Breastfeeding and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):10201031. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.062794

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Balasch J, Gratacós E. Delayed childbearing: effects on fertility and the outcome of pregnancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2012;24(3):187193. doi:10.1097/GCO.0b013e3283517908

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Rosenbaum MH, Wayne AS, Molter BL, Mueller MK. Perceptions of support and policies regarding pregnancy, parenting, and family planning during veterinary training at United States veterinary medical training institutions. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018;253(10):12811288. doi:10.2460/javma.253.10.1281

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Molter B, Wayne A, Mueller MK, Gibeley M, Rosenbaum MH. Current policies and support services for pregnant and parenting veterinary medical students and house officers at United States veterinary medical training institutions. J Vet Med Educ. 2019;46(2):145152. doi:10.3138/jvme.0917-119r

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Wayne AS, Mueller MK, Rosenbaum M. Perceptions of maternal discrimination and pregnancy/postpartum experiences among veterinary mothers. Front Vet Sci. 2020;7:91. doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.00091

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Zeeb H, Blettner M. Adult leukaemia: what is the role of currently known risk factors? Radiat Environ Biophys. 1998;36(4):217228. doi:10.1007/s004110050075

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Dich J, Zahm SH, Hanberg A, Adami HO. Pesticides and cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 1997;8(3):420443. doi:10.1023/a:1018413522959

  • 40.

    Blair A, Zahm SH. Agricultural exposures and cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 1995;103(suppl 8):205208. doi:10.1289/ehp.95103s8205

  • 41.

    Shenoy P, Maggioncalda A, Malik N, Flowers CR. Incidence patterns and outcomes for Hodgkin lymphoma patients in the United States. Adv Hematol. 2011;2011:725219. doi:10.1155/2011/725219

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Witte TK, Spitzer EG, Edwards N, Fowler KA, Nett RJ. Suicides and deaths of undetermined intent among veterinary professionals from 2003 through 2014. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2019;255(5):595608. doi:10.2460/javma.255.5.595

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Hawton K, Clements A, Simkin S, Malmberg A. Doctors who kill themselves: a study of the methods used for suicide. QJM. 2000;93(6):351357. doi:10.1093/qjmed/93.6.351

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Skegg K, Firth H, Gray A, Cox B. Suicide by occupation: does access to means increase the risk? Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2010;44(5):429434. doi:10.3109/00048670903487191

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Roberts SE, Jaremin B, Lloyd K. High-risk occupations for suicide. Psychol Med. 2013;43(6):12311240. doi:10.1017/S0033291712002024

  • 46.

    Bartram DJ, Baldwin DS. Veterinary surgeons and suicide: a structured review of possible influences on increased risk. Vet Rec. 2010;166(13):388397. doi:10.1136/vr.b4794

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Scotney RL, McLaughlin D, Keates HL. A systematic review of the effects of euthanasia and occupational stress in personnel working with animals in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2015;247(10):11211130. doi:10.2460/javma.247.10.1121

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Volk JO, Schimmack U, Strand EB, Vasconcelos J, Siren CW. Executive summary of the Merck Animal Health Veterinarian Wellbeing Study II. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2020;256:12371244. doi:10.2460/javma.256.11.1237

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Nett RJ, Witte TK, Tomasi SE, Fowle KA. Storage of euthanasia solution as a factor in addressing veterinarian suicides. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2020;256(12):13211322. doi:10.2460/javma.256.12.1321

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Gabel CL, Gerberich SG. Risk factors for injury among veterinarians. Epidemiology. 2002;13(1):8086. doi:10.1097/00001648-200201000-00013

  • 51.

    Preventing work-related motor vehicle crashes. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Last modified March 2015. Accessed March 26, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2015-111/pdfs/2015-111.pdf?id=10.26616/NIOSHPUB201511

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Ambrose JA, Barua RS. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(10):17311737. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2003.12.047

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Sattar N, Sorensen T, Taylor AE, Morris R, Munafo MR. Smoking and diabetes risk: building a causal case with clinical implications. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(12):918920. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(15)00341-1

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Frank E, Brogan DJ, Mokdad AH, Simoes EJ, Kahn HS, Greensberg RS. Health-related behaviors of women physicians vs other women in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(4):342348. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.4.342

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Winkleby MA, Jatulis DE, Frank E, Fortman SP. Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am J Public Health. 1992;82(6):816820. doi:10.2105/ajph.82.6.816

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Wagenknecht LE, Perkins LL, Cutter GR, et al. Cigarette smoking behavior is strongly related to educational status: the CARDIA study. Prev Med. 1990;19(2):158169. doi:10.1016/0091-7435(90)90017-e

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical methods in cancer research. IARC Workshop 25–27 May 1983. IARC Sci Publ. 1987;(82):1406.

Advertisement

All causes of death among veterinarians in the United States during 1979 through 2015

Suzanne E. TomasiEpidemic Intelligence Service, Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services, CDC, Atlanta, GA
Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV

Search for other papers by Suzanne E. Tomasi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MPH, DACVPM
,
Ethan D. Fechter-LeggettRespiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV

Search for other papers by Ethan D. Fechter-Leggett in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MPVM
,
Nicole T. EdwardsRespiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV

Search for other papers by Nicole T. Edwards in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MS
,
Anna D. ReddishAVMA, Schaumburg, IL

Search for other papers by Anna D. Reddish in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
, and
Randall J. NettRespiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, Morgantown, WV

Search for other papers by Randall J. Nett in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MD, MPH

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess proportionate mortality from all causes for male and female US veterinarians during 1979 through 2015.

SAMPLE

Death records for 11,620 veterinarians.

PROCEDURES

For this proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study, information for veterinarians who died during 1979 through 2015 was obtained from AVMA obituary and life insurance databases and submitted to a centralized database of US death records to obtain underlying causes of death. Decedent data that met records-matching criteria were imported into a software program for calculation of PMRs for all causes stratified by sex and indirectly standardized for age, race, and 5-year calendar period with 95% CIs.

RESULTS

11,620 decedents consisted of 11,049 (95%) males and 571 (5%) females with a median age at death of 77 years. Proportionate mortality for all veterinarian decedents was higher than expected for melanoma (PMRs, 2.1 and 2.2 for males and females, respectively), suicide (PMRs, 2.1 and 3.5 for males and females, respectively), and transportation injuries (PMRs, 1.7 and 1.6 for males and females, respectively). Proportionate mortality for all decedents was lower than expected for respiratory cancers (PMRs, 0.6 and 0.5 for males and females, respectively), diabetes mellitus (PMRs, 0.7 and 0.4 for males and females, respectively), heart disease (PMRs, 0.9 and 0.6 for males and females, respectively), and respiratory disorders (PMRs, 0.7 and 0.6 for males and females, respectively).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated proportionate mortality from malignant melanoma, transportation injuries, and suicide for male and female veterinarians was higher than the general population. These data may help stakeholders improve veterinarian workplace safety and health guidelines.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess proportionate mortality from all causes for male and female US veterinarians during 1979 through 2015.

SAMPLE

Death records for 11,620 veterinarians.

PROCEDURES

For this proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study, information for veterinarians who died during 1979 through 2015 was obtained from AVMA obituary and life insurance databases and submitted to a centralized database of US death records to obtain underlying causes of death. Decedent data that met records-matching criteria were imported into a software program for calculation of PMRs for all causes stratified by sex and indirectly standardized for age, race, and 5-year calendar period with 95% CIs.

RESULTS

11,620 decedents consisted of 11,049 (95%) males and 571 (5%) females with a median age at death of 77 years. Proportionate mortality for all veterinarian decedents was higher than expected for melanoma (PMRs, 2.1 and 2.2 for males and females, respectively), suicide (PMRs, 2.1 and 3.5 for males and females, respectively), and transportation injuries (PMRs, 1.7 and 1.6 for males and females, respectively). Proportionate mortality for all decedents was lower than expected for respiratory cancers (PMRs, 0.6 and 0.5 for males and females, respectively), diabetes mellitus (PMRs, 0.7 and 0.4 for males and females, respectively), heart disease (PMRs, 0.9 and 0.6 for males and females, respectively), and respiratory disorders (PMRs, 0.7 and 0.6 for males and females, respectively).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated proportionate mortality from malignant melanoma, transportation injuries, and suicide for male and female veterinarians was higher than the general population. These data may help stakeholders improve veterinarian workplace safety and health guidelines.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Tomasi (yxc4@cdc.gov)