• 1.

    Leary S, Underwood W, Anthony R, et al. AVMA guidelines for the euthanasia of animals: 2020 edition. AVMA. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.avma.org/KB/Policies/Documents/euthanasia.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Neiffer DL. Anesthesia and analgesia. In: Hadfield C, Clayton L, eds. Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine. 1st ed. Wiley Blackwell; 2021:198212.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Collymore C, Banks EK, Turner PV. Lidocaine hydrochloride compared with MS222 for the euthanasia of zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2016;55(6):816820.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Bernstein PS, Digre KB, Creel DJ. Retinal toxicity associated with occupational exposure to the fish anesthetic MS-222. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997;124(6):843844. doi:10.1016/s0002-9394(14)71705-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Leary S, Underwood W, Anthony R, et al. AVMA guidelines for the euthanasia of animals: 2013 Edition. AVMA. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.avma.org/sites/default/files/resources/euthanasia.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Vanderwolf CH, Buzsaki G, Cain DP, Cooley RK, Robertson B. Neocortical and hippocampal electrical activity following decapitation in the rat. Brain Res. 1988;451(1-2):340344. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(88)90780-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Warburton B, Gregory NG, Morriss G. Effect of jaw shape in kill-traps on time to loss of palpebral reflexes in brushtail possums. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36(1):9296. doi:10.7589/0090-3558-36.1.92

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Naylor BJ, Novak M. Catch efficiency and selectivity of various traps and sets used for capturing American martens. Wildl Soc Bull. 1994;22(3):489496.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Neiffer DL, Stamper MA. Fish sedation, analgesia, anesthesia, and euthanasia: considerations, methods, and types of drugs. ILAR J. 2009;50(4):343360.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Balko JA, Oda A, Posner LP. Use of tricaine methanesulfonate or propofol for immersion euthanasia of goldfish (Carassius auratus). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2018;252(12):15551561.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Louis MM, Houck EL, Lewbart GA, et al. Evaluation of potassium chloride administered via three routes for euthanasia of anesthetized koi (Cyprinus carpio). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2020;51(3):485489.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Bernat JL. The definition and criterion of death. In: Bernat JL, Beresford HR, eds. Ethical and Legal Issues in Neurology. Elsevier; 2013:419435. Handbook of Clinical Neurology; vol 118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Carter KM, Woodley CM, Brown RS. A review of tricaine methanesulfonate for anesthesia of fish. Rev Fish Biol Fish. 2011;21(1):5159. doi:10.1007/s11160-010-9188-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Brown L. Anesthesia and restraint. In: Stoskopf M, ed. Textbook of Fish Medicine. 2nd ed. Saunders Company; 2012:7990.

  • 15.

    Holeton GF, Randall DJ. Changes in blood pressure in the rainbow trout during hypoxia. J Exp Biol. 1967;46(2):297305.

  • 16.

    Stecyk JAW, Galli GL, Shiels HA, Farrell AP. Cardiac survival in anoxia-tolerant vertebrates: an electrophysiological perspective. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;148(4):339354. doi:10.1016/j.cbpc.2008.05.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Popovic NT, Strunjak-Perovic I, Coz-Rakovac R, et al. Tricaine methane-sulfonate (MS-222) application in fish anaesthesia. J Appl Ichthyology. 2012;28(4):553564. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.2012.01950.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Attili S, Hughes SM. Anaesthetic tricaine acts preferentially on neural voltage-gated sodium channels and fails to block directly evoked muscle contraction. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e103751. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103751

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Ramlochansingh C, Branoner F, Chagnaud BP, Straka H. Efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) as an anesthetic agent for blocking sensory-motor responses in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e101606. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101606

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Lalonde-Robert V, Desgent S, Duss S, Vachon P. Electroencephalographic and physiologic changes after tricaine methanesulfonate immersion of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2012;51(5):622627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Nilsson GE, Lutz PL. Anoxia tolerant brains. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004;24(5):475486. doi:10.1097/00004647-200405000-00001

  • 22.

    Jobling M, Ross M, Ross B. Anaesthetic and sedative techniques for aquatic animals (Third Edition). Aquacult Int. 2009;17(4):401402.

  • 23.

    Zahl I, Kiessling A, Samuelsen O, Hansen MK. Anaesthesia of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)—effect of pre-anaesthetic sedation, and importance of body weight, temperature and stress. Aquaculture. 2009;295(1-2):5259. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.06.019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Park IS, Park SJ, Gil HW, Nam YK, Kim DS. Anesthetic effects of clove oil and lidocaine-HCl on marine medaka (Oryzias dancena). Lab Anim (NY). 2011;40(2):4551. doi:10.1038/laban0211-45

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Parker-Graham CA, Lima KM, Soto E. The effect of anesthetic time and concentration on blood gases, acid-base status, and electrolytes in koi (Cyprinus carpio) anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2020;51(1):102109. doi:10.1638/2019-0066

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Wayson KA, Downes H, Lynn R, Gerber N. Studies on the comparative pharmacology and selective toxicity of tricaine methanesulfonate: metabolism as a basis of the selective toxicity in poikilotherms. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1976;198(3):695708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Raulic J, Lamglait B, Vergneau-Grosset C. Use of symmetric dimethylarginine to detect renal lesions in fish: a preliminary study in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2021;52(3):10241029. doi:10.1638/2020-0218

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Zhou W, Boucher RC, Bollig F, Englert C, Hildebrandt F. Characterization of mesonephric development and regeneration using transgenic zebrafish. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299(5):F1040F1047. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00394.2010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Hadfield C. Water quality. In: Hadfield C, Clayton L, eds. Clinical Guide to Fish Medicine. 1st ed. Wiley Blackwell; 2021:3548.

  • 30.

    Mylniczenko ND, Clauss TM, Stamper MA. Elasmobranchs and holocephalans. In: West G, Heard D, Caulket N, eds. Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014:261301.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Potts WTW, Hedges AJ. Gill potentials in marine teleosts. J Comp Physiol B. 1991;161(4):401405.

Advertisement

Evaluation of prolonged immersion in tricaine methanesulfonate for juvenile goldfish (Carassius auratus) euthanasia

View More View Less
  • 1 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada
  • | 2 VetAgro Sup, Marcy l’Étoile, France
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Doses of buffered tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) up to 1000 mg/L for 15 minutes are reported inefficient to produce euthanasia in goldfish. The goal of this study was to determine if goldfish can be euthanized by more prolonged immersion in MS-222.

ANIMALS

24 healthy goldfish (weight range: 1 to 10 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 fish.

PROCEDURES

The first group (G1) was exposed to 500 mg/L buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours and 18 hours respectively. The fourth group (G4) was exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 60 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. Time to cessation and return of operculation were recorded. If the goldfish did not resume operculation, heart rate was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonic flow detector.

RESULTS

Median times to apnea were 35 seconds at 1000 mg/L and 65 seconds at 500 mg/L. Re-operculation occurred only in G1 in 5 out of 6 individuals. All fish from G1, 3 fish from G2, 0 fish from G3, 1 fish from G4 had remaining heartbeats at the end of the observation period.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall, a dose of 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes was efficient to euthanize juvenile goldfish at 20 °C. Different fish body mass and water quality parameters might explain different results compared to previous studies.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Doses of buffered tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) up to 1000 mg/L for 15 minutes are reported inefficient to produce euthanasia in goldfish. The goal of this study was to determine if goldfish can be euthanized by more prolonged immersion in MS-222.

ANIMALS

24 healthy goldfish (weight range: 1 to 10 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 fish.

PROCEDURES

The first group (G1) was exposed to 500 mg/L buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours and 18 hours respectively. The fourth group (G4) was exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 60 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. Time to cessation and return of operculation were recorded. If the goldfish did not resume operculation, heart rate was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonic flow detector.

RESULTS

Median times to apnea were 35 seconds at 1000 mg/L and 65 seconds at 500 mg/L. Re-operculation occurred only in G1 in 5 out of 6 individuals. All fish from G1, 3 fish from G2, 0 fish from G3, 1 fish from G4 had remaining heartbeats at the end of the observation period.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall, a dose of 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes was efficient to euthanize juvenile goldfish at 20 °C. Different fish body mass and water quality parameters might explain different results compared to previous studies.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Vergneau-Grosset (claire.grosset@umontreal.ca)