• 1.

    Molina-López RA, Casal J, Darwich L. Causes of morbidity in wild raptor populations admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain from 1995–2007: a long term retrospective study. PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24603. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024603

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Cousins RA, Battley PF, Gartrell BD, Powlesland RG. Impact injuries and probability of survival in a large semiurban endemic pigeon in New Zealand, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48(3):567574.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Davidson JR, Mitchell MA, Ramirez S. Plate fixation of a coracoid fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). J Avian Med Surg. 2005;19(4):303308.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Holz PH. Coracoid fractures in wild birds: repair and outcomes. Aust Vet J. 2003;81(8):469471.

  • 5.

    Scheelings TF. Coracoid fractures in wild birds: a comparison of surgical repair versus conservative treatment. J Avian Med Surg. 2014;28(4):304308.

  • 6.

    Visser M, Hespel A-M, de Swarte M, Bellah JR. Use of a caudoventral-craniodorsal oblique radiographic view made at 45° to the frontal plane to evaluate the pectoral girdle in raptors. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2015;247(9):10371041.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Beaufrère H. A review of biomechanic and aerodynamic considerations of the avian thoracic limb. J Avian Med Surg. 2009;23(3):173185.

  • 8.

    Veltri CJ, Klem D Jr. Comparison of fatal bird injuries from collisions with towers and windows. J Field Ornithol. 2005;76(2):127133.

Advertisement

Diagnostic accuracy of seven radiographic views, alone and in combination, for diagnosis of pectoral girdle fractures in wild passerines after window collisions

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK
  • | 2 Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK
  • | 3 Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of pectoral girdle fractures in wild passerines found dead following presumed window collision and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of various radiographic views for diagnosis of pectoral girdle fractures.

SAMPLE

Cadavers of 103 wild passerines that presumptively died as a result of window collisions.

PROCEDURES

Seven radiographic projections (ventrodorsal, dorsoventral, lateral, and 4 oblique views) were obtained for each cadaver. A necropsy was then performed, and each bone of the pectoral girdle (coracoid, clavicle, and scapula) was evaluated for fractures. Radiographs were evaluated in a randomized order by a blinded observer, and results were compared with results of necropsy.

RESULTS

Fifty-six of the 103 (54%) cadavers had ≥ 1 pectoral girdle fracture. Overall accuracy of using individual radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 63.1% to 72.8%, sensitivity ranged from 21.3% to 51.1%, and specificity ranged from 85.7% to 100.0%. The sensitivity of using various combinations of radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 51.1% to 66.0%; specificity ranged from 76.8% to 96.4%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Radiography alone appeared to have limited accuracy for diagnosing fractures of the bones of the pectoral girdle in wild passerines after collision with a window. Both individual radiographic projections and combinations of projections resulted in numerous false negative but few false positive results.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 100 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (PDF 66 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S3 (PDF 65 KB)

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Brandão (jbrandao@okstate.edu)