• 1.

    Jeffcott LB, Dalin G, Ekman S, Olsson SE. Sacroiliac lesions as a cause of chronic poor performance in competitive horses. Equine Vet J. 1985;17(2):111118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Denoix JM. Diagnosis of the cause of back pain in horses. In: Proceedings of the First Conference on Equine Sports Medicine and Science. 1998;97110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Dyson SJ. Poor performance and lameness. In: Ross MW, Dyson SJ, eds. Diagnosis and Management of Lameness in the Horse. 2nd ed. WB Saunders Co; 2010:920925.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Peters DF. Thoracolumbar and lumbosacral considerations in hind leg lameness. In: Proceedings of the AAEP Focus Meeting on Hindlimb Lameness. American Association of Equine Practitioners; 2012:8793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Barstow A, Dyson SJ. Clinical features and diagnosis of sacroiliac joint region pain in 296 horses: 2004–2014. Equine Vet Educ. 2015;27(12):637647.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Boado A, Nagy A, Dyson SJ. Ultrasonographic features associated with the lumbosacral or lumbar 5–6 symphyses in 64 horses with lumbosacral-sacroiliac joint region pain (2012–2018). Equine Vet Educ. 2020;32(S10):136143.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature. Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. 6th ed. World Association of Veterinary Anatomists; 2017:31.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Barone R. Anatomie Comparée des Mammifères Domestiques. Tome 2: Arthrologie et Myologie. 4th ed. Vigot; 2000:6869.

  • 9.

    Denoix JM. The pelvis. In: Essentials of Clinical Anatomy of the Equine Locomotor System. CRC Press; 2019:171188.

  • 10.

    Dyce KM. Some basic facts and concepts. In: Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG, eds. Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy. WB Saunders Co; 1987:128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Haussler KK, Stover SM, Willits NH. Developmental variation in lumbosacropelvic anatomy of Thoroughbred racehorses. Am J Vet Res. 1997;58(10):10831091.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Stubbs NC, Hodges PW, Jeffcott LB, Cowin G, Hodgson DR, McGowan CM. Functional anatomy of the caudal thoracolumbar and lumbosacral spine in the horse. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2006;38(S36):393399.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Denoix JM. Ultrasonographic evaluation of back lesions. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1999;15(1):131159.

  • 14.

    Denoix JM, Audigié F, Coudry V. Diagnosis imaging of back and pelvis injuries in horses. In: Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association. National Association of Veterinarians of Morocco; 2006:4250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Werpy NM. Imaging of the thoracolumbar region and pelvis. In: Proceedings of the American Association of Equine Practitioners Focus Meeting on Lameness and Imaging. American Association of Equine Practitioners; 2007:183189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Bergman EHJ, Puchalski SM, Denoix JM. How to perform a transrectal ultrasound examination of the lumbosacral and sacroiliac joints. In: Proceedings of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 59th Annual Convention. American Association of Equine Practitioners; 2013:229237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Jeffcott LB. Radiographic appearance of equine lumbosacral and pelvic abnormalities by linear tomography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 1983;24:201213.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Denoix JM, Audigié F, Coudry V. Review of diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral pain in sport and race horses. In: Proceedings of the American Association of Equine Practitioners 51st Annual Convention. American Association of Equine Practitioners; 2005:366373.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Vautravers G, Coudry V, Denoix J-M. Review of the use of transrectal ultrasonography for evaluation of the caudal lumbar – including lumbosacral – intervertebral discs and symphyses: normal and abnormal ultrasonographic appearance. Equine Vet Educ. 2021;33(6):310319. doi:10.1111/eve.13313

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Nagy A, Dyson S, Barr A. Ultrasonographic findings in the lumbosacral joint of 43 horses with no clinical signs of back pain or hindlimb lameness. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2010;51(5):533539.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Tallaj A, Coudry V, Denoix J-M. Transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the sacroiliac joints of the horse: technique and normal images. Equine Vet Educ. 2019;31(12):666671.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Donner A, Eliasziw M. A goodness-of-fit approach to inference procedures for the kappa statistic: confidence interval construction, significance-testing and sample size estimation. Stat Med. 1992;11(11):15111519.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Didierlaurent D, Contremoulins V, Denoix J-M, Audigié F. Scintigraphic pattern of uptake of 99mTechnetium by the cervical vertebrae of sound horses. Vet Rec. 2009;164(26):809813.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Sheperd MC, Meehan J. The European Thoroughbred. In: Dyson SJ, Pilsworth RC, Twardock AR, Martinelli MJ, eds. Equine Scintigraphy. Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd; 2003:124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Barone R. Anatomie Comparée des Mammifères Domestiques. Tome 1: Ostéologie. 4th ed. Vigot; 1999.

  • 26.

    Connolly LP, d’Hemecourt PA, Connolly SA, Drubach LA, Micheli LJ, Treves ST. Skeletal scintigraphy of young patients with low-back pain and a lumbosacral transitional vertebra. J Nucl Med. 2003;44(6):909914.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Aihara T, Takahashi K, Ogasawara A, Itadera E, Ono Y, Moriya H. Intervertebral disc degeneration associated with lumbosacral transitional vertebrae: a clinical and anatomical study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005;87(5):687691.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Morgan JP, Bahr A, Franti CE, Bailey CS. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae as a predisposing cause of cauda equina syndrome in German Shepherd Dogs: 161 cases (1987–1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;202(11):18771882.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Morgan JP, Wind A, Davidson AP. Transitional lumbosacral vertebrae. In: Morgan JP, Wind A, Davidson AP, eds. Hereditary Bone and Joint Diseases in the Dog: Osteochondrosis, Hip Dysplasia, Elbow Dysplasia. Schlütersche; 2000:223229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Flückiger MA, Damur-Djuric N, Hässig M, Morgan JP, Steffen F. A lumbosacral transitional vertebra in the dog predisposes to cauda equina syndrome. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2006;47(1):3944.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Bertram S, Ter Haar G, De Decker S. Congenital malformations of the lumbosacral vertebral column are common in neurologically normal French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs, and Pugs, with breed-specific differences. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2019;60(4):400408.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Prevalences of lumbosacral articulation anatomic variants identified on nuclear scintigraphy and transrectal ultrasonography of Selle Français Warmbloods, French Standardbred Trotters, and Thoroughbreds and agreement between results from the imaging modalities

View More View Less
  • 1 Centre de Recherche et d’Imagerie des Affections Locomotrices Equines, Unit Under Contract 957 Equine Biomechanics and Locomotor Disorders, French National Research Institute for Agriculture Food and Environment, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Normandie Equine Vallée, Goustranville, France

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe scintigraphic and transrectal ultrasonographic anatomic variants of the lumbosacral (LS) articulation in horses and to determine the agreement between results obtained with each imaging modality.

ANIMALS

243 horses (81 Selle Français Warmbloods, 81 French Standardbred Trotters, and 81 Thoroughbreds).

PROCEDURES

A retrospective search of clinical records was conducted to identify horses that had undergone nuclear scintigraphy and transrectal ultrasonography of the LS region of the vertebral column between January 2016 and December 2019. Scintigraphic images were evaluated by 2 observers blinded to the other’s results for classification of LS articulation anatomic variants (scintigraphic type); intra- and interobserver agreement were determined. Ultrasonographic images were evaluated for classification of LS intervertebral symphysis anatomic variant (ultrasonographic grade) by 1 observer blinded to horses’ identities and scintigraphic findings; agreement analysis was performed between scintigraphic type and ultrasonographic grade. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed to describe distribution of anatomic variants.

RESULTS

The scintigraphic classification system (scintigraphic type) had excellent intra- and interobserver agreement. Agreement between results for scintigraphic type and ultrasonographic grade was moderate (κ = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.70). Anatomic variants of the LS articulation were observed in all groups. The distribution of variants differed significantly among breeds but not sexes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Anatomic variations of the LS articulation in horses must be known to avoid misinterpreting them as clinically meaningful findings. Further research is needed to determine potential relationships between these anatomic variants and LS lesions, their clinical manifestations, and their influence on athletic performance.

Contributor Notes

Corresponding author: Dr. Vautravers (guillaume.vautravers.vet@gmail.com)