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Ophthalmic disorders in a referral population of seven breeds of brachycephalic dogs: 970 cases (2008–2017)

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  • 1 From the Departments of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 2 From the Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the frequency of ophthalmic disorders in 7 brachycephalic dog breeds referred to an academic veterinary ophthalmology service.

ANIMALS

970 client-owned dogs of 7 brachycephalic breeds that were evaluated by the ophthalmology service in a veterinary teaching hospital from January 2008 through December 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of 7 brachycephalic breeds (ie, Boston Terriers, English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, Lhasa Apsos, Pekingese, Pugs, and Shih Tzus) were reviewed to collect data regarding patient signalment, ophthalmic diagnoses, affected eyes, and number and dates of visits.

RESULTS

Median age at the first examination was 7 years (range, 23 days to 22 years). The number of dogs seen for a first examination increased with age. Corneal ulcers, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal pigmentation, immature cataracts, and uveitis were each diagnosed in ≥ 100 dogs and represented 40.4% (1,161/2,873) of all diagnoses. On the basis of anatomic location, 66.3% (1,905/2,873) of all disorders were located in either the cornea (1,014/2,873 [35.2%]) or adnexa (891/2,873 [31%]). There was a significant difference in breed proportion in the study population; of the 7 breeds studied, Shih Tzus (34.3% [333/970]), Pugs (20.8% [202/970]), and Boston Terriers (16.6% [161/970]) were the most prevalent breeds. The frequency of some diseases within the referral population was associated with breed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that the most prevalent disorders for the brachycephalic breeds in this ophthalmic referral population were corneal ulcers, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal pigmentation, immature cataracts, and uveitis. Although all dogs shared brachycephalic features, the frequency of specific ophthalmic diseases varied between breeds.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the frequency of ophthalmic disorders in 7 brachycephalic dog breeds referred to an academic veterinary ophthalmology service.

ANIMALS

970 client-owned dogs of 7 brachycephalic breeds that were evaluated by the ophthalmology service in a veterinary teaching hospital from January 2008 through December 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of 7 brachycephalic breeds (ie, Boston Terriers, English Bulldogs, French Bulldogs, Lhasa Apsos, Pekingese, Pugs, and Shih Tzus) were reviewed to collect data regarding patient signalment, ophthalmic diagnoses, affected eyes, and number and dates of visits.

RESULTS

Median age at the first examination was 7 years (range, 23 days to 22 years). The number of dogs seen for a first examination increased with age. Corneal ulcers, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal pigmentation, immature cataracts, and uveitis were each diagnosed in ≥ 100 dogs and represented 40.4% (1,161/2,873) of all diagnoses. On the basis of anatomic location, 66.3% (1,905/2,873) of all disorders were located in either the cornea (1,014/2,873 [35.2%]) or adnexa (891/2,873 [31%]). There was a significant difference in breed proportion in the study population; of the 7 breeds studied, Shih Tzus (34.3% [333/970]), Pugs (20.8% [202/970]), and Boston Terriers (16.6% [161/970]) were the most prevalent breeds. The frequency of some diseases within the referral population was associated with breed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that the most prevalent disorders for the brachycephalic breeds in this ophthalmic referral population were corneal ulcers, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, corneal pigmentation, immature cataracts, and uveitis. Although all dogs shared brachycephalic features, the frequency of specific ophthalmic diseases varied between breeds.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Espinheira Gomes (fe64@cornell.edu).