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Incidence, survival time, and surgical treatment of parathyroid carcinomas in dogs: 100 cases (2010–2019)

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  • 1 From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine.
  • | 2 From the Statistics Division, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
  • | 3 From the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610; Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.
  • | 4 From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 5 From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 6 From the Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.
  • | 7 From the Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 8 From the Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607.
  • | 9 From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74074.
  • | 10 From the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 11 From the Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
  • | 12 From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010.
  • | 13 From the Department of Clinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time

ANIMALS

100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions.

PROCEDURES

In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded.

RESULTS

100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate outcomes of dogs with parathyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated by surgical excision and to describe the incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia, degree of hypocalcemia, duration of hospitalization, duration of calcium supplementation, and survival time

ANIMALS

100 client-owned dogs with PTC admitted to academic, referral veterinary institutions.

PROCEDURES

In a retrospective multi-institutional study, medical records of dogs undergoing surgical excision of PTC between 2010 to 2019 were reviewed. Signalment, relevant medical history, clinical signs, clinicopathologic testing, imaging, surgical findings, intraoperative complications, histologic examination, and survival time were recorded.

RESULTS

100 dogs with PTC were included, and 96 dogs had clinical or incidental hypercalcemia. Common clinical signs included polyuria (44%), polydipsia (43%), hind limb paresis (22%), lethargy (21%), and hyporexia (20%). Cervical ultrasonography detected a parathyroid nodule in 91 of 91 dogs, with a single nodule in 70.3% (64/91), 2 nodules in 25.3% (23/91), and ≥ 3 nodules in 4 (4/91)% of dogs. Hypercalcemia resolved in 89 of 96 dogs within 7 days after surgery. Thirty-four percent of dogs developed hypocalcemia, on the basis of individual analyzer ranges, within 1 week after surgery. One dog had metastatic PTC to the prescapular lymph node, and 3 dogs were euthanized for refractory postoperative hypocalcemia. Estimated 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 84%, 65%, and 51% respectively, with a median survival time of 2 years.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Excision of PTC results in resolution of hypercalcemia and excellent long-term tumor control. Surgical excision of PTC is recommended because of resolution of hypercalcemia and a good long-term prognosis. Future prospective studies and long-term follow-up are needed to further assess primary tumor recurrence, metastasis, and incidence of postoperative hypocalcemia.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Regier (pregier@ufl.edu).