• 1.

    Hahn CN, Handel I, Green SL, Bronsvoort MB, Mayhew IG. Assessment of the utility of using intra- and intervertebral minimum sagittal diameter ratios in the diagnosis of cervical vertebral malformation in horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2008;49(1):16. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2007.00308.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Dyson SJ. Lesions of the equine neck resulting in lameness or poor performance. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2011;27(3):417437. doi:10.1016/j.cveq.2011.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Hoffman CJ, Clark CK. Prognosis for racing with conservative management of cervical vertebral malformation in Thoroughbreds: 103 cases (2002–2010). J Vet Intern Med. 2013;27(2):317323. doi:10.1111/jvim.12053

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Didierlaurent D, Contremoulins V, Denoix JM, Audigié F. Scintigraphic pattern of uptake of 99mTechnetium by the cervical vertebrae of sound horses. Vet Rec. 2009;164(26):809813. doi:10.1136/vr.164.26.809

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Butler JA, Colles CM, Dyson SJ, et al. Clinical radiology of the horse. In: Butler JA, Colles CM, Dyson SJ, et al., eds. Clinical Radiology of the Horse. 4th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2017:531607.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Moore BR, Reed SM, Robertson JT. Surgical treatment of cervical stenotic myelopathy in horses: 73 cases (1983–1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1993;203(1):108112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Moore BR, Holbrook TC, Stefanacci JD, Reed SM, Tate LP, Menard MC. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and myelography in six horses with cervical stenotic myelopathy. Equine Vet J. 1992;24(3):197202. doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb02814.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    da Costa RC, Parent J, Dobson H, Holmberg D, Partlow G. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and myelography in 18 Doberman Pinscher dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2006;47(6):523531. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8261.2006.00180.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Denoix J-M, Audigi F. Ultrasonographic examination of joints in horses. In: Proceedings of the 47th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. American Association of Equine Practitioners; 2001:366375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gutiérrez-Crespo B, Kircher PR, Carrera I. 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the occipitoatlantoaxial region in the normal horse. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2014;55(3):278285. doi:10.1111/vru.12121

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Janes JG, Garrett KS, McQuerry KJ, et al. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with standing cervical radio-graphs for evaluation of vertebral canal stenosis in equine cervical stenotic myelopathy. Equine Vet J. 2014;46(6):681686. doi:10.1111/evj.12221

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sleutjens J, Cooley AJ, Sampson SN, et al. The equine cervical spine: comparing MRI and contrast-enhanced CT images with anatomic slices in the sagittal, dorsal, and transverse plane. Vet Q. 2014;34(2):7484. doi:10.1080/01652176.2014.951129

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Claridge HAH, Piercy RJ, Parry A, Weller R. The 3D anatomy of the cervical articular process joints in the horse and their topographical relationship to the spinal cord. Equine Vet J. 2010;42(8):726731. doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00114.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Zafra R, Carrascosa C, Rivero M, et al. Analysis of equine cervical spine using three-dimensional computed tomo-graphic reconstruction. J Appl Anim Res. 2012;40(2):108111. doi:10.1080/09712119.2011.621532

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Yamada K, Sato F, Hada T, et al. Quantitative evaluation of cervical cord compression by computed tomographic myelography in Thoroughbred foals. J Equine Sci. 2016;27(4):143148. doi:10.1294/jes.27.143

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Tucker R, Piercy RJ, Dixon JJ, et al. Arthroscopic treatment for cervical articular process joint osteochondrosis in a Thoroughbred horse. Equine Vet Educ. 2018;30(3):116121. doi:10.1111/eve.12610

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Sleutjens J, Voorhout G, Van Der Kolk JH, Wijnberg ID, Back W. The effect of ex vivo flexion and extension on intervertebral foramina dimensions in the equine cervical spine. Equine Vet J. 2010;42(38):425430. doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00226.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Barone R, Simoens P. Nerfs spinaux, III-plexus brachial. In: Barone R, ed. Anatomie comparée des mammifères domestiques. Neurologie II, système nerveux périphérique, glandes endocrines, esthésiologie. Vigot; 2010:169229.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Down SS, Henson FMD. Radiographic retrospective study of the caudal cervical articular process joints in the horse. Equine Vet J. 2009;41(6):518524. doi:10.2746/042516409X391015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Janes JG, Garrett KS, McQuerry KJ, et al. Cervical vertebral lesions in equine stenotic myelopathy. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(5):919927. doi:10.1177/0300985815593127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Olstad K, Østevik L, Carlson CS, Ekman S. Osteochondrosis can lead to formation of pseudocysts and true cysts in the subchondral bone of horses. Vet Pathol. 2015;52(5):862872. doi:10.1177/0300985814559399

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Chigira M, Maehara S, Arita S, Udagawa E. The aetiology and treatment of simple bone cysts. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1983;65(5):633637. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.65B5.6643570

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Wijnberg ID, Back W, de Jong M, Zuidhof MC, van den Belt AJ, van der Kolk JH. The role of electromyography in clinical diagnosis of neuromuscular locomotor problems in the horse. Equine Vet J. 2004;36(8):718722. doi:10.2746/0425164044848019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Computed tomographic examination of the articular process joints of the cervical spine in warmblood horses: 86 cases (2015–2017)

View More View Less
  • 1 From the Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, Biometrics Research Group,
  • | 2 Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Research Group Comparative Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium;
  • | 3 Equitom Equine Hospital, 3560 Meldert, Belgium.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe articular process joints (APJs) of the cervical spine in horses on the basis of CT and to determine whether abnormalities were associated with clinical signs.

ANIMALS

86 client-owned warmblood horses.

PROCEDURES

Horses that underwent CT of the cervical spine between January 2015 and January 2017 were eligible for study inclusion. Medical records were reviewed for age, body weight, breed, sex, history, clinical signs, and CT findings. Horses were divided into 3 case groups and 1 control group on the basis of clinical signs.

RESULTS

70 warmblood horses were cases, and 16 were controls. Abnormalities were more frequent from C5 through T1 and were severe in only horses from the case group. Narrowing of the intervertebral foramen was common in horses in the case group (85.7%), often owing to enlarged, misshaped articular processes, followed by degenerative changes, periarticular osteolysis, cyst-like lesions, and fragmentation. High articular process-to-vertebral body (C6) ratio (APBR) and high-grade narrowing of the intervertebral foramen and periarticular osteolysis were noted for horses with forelimb lameness or signs of cervical pain or stiffness. No association was identified between APBR and age or sex. An APBR > 1.5 was found in only horses in the case group, and 32.3% of APJs with APBRs > 1.5 did not have any degenerative changes and periarticular osteolysis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CT was useful to identify abnormalities of the APJs of the cervical spine. An association existed between CT findings and clinical signs. The APJs can be enlarged without concurrent degenerative changes.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe articular process joints (APJs) of the cervical spine in horses on the basis of CT and to determine whether abnormalities were associated with clinical signs.

ANIMALS

86 client-owned warmblood horses.

PROCEDURES

Horses that underwent CT of the cervical spine between January 2015 and January 2017 were eligible for study inclusion. Medical records were reviewed for age, body weight, breed, sex, history, clinical signs, and CT findings. Horses were divided into 3 case groups and 1 control group on the basis of clinical signs.

RESULTS

70 warmblood horses were cases, and 16 were controls. Abnormalities were more frequent from C5 through T1 and were severe in only horses from the case group. Narrowing of the intervertebral foramen was common in horses in the case group (85.7%), often owing to enlarged, misshaped articular processes, followed by degenerative changes, periarticular osteolysis, cyst-like lesions, and fragmentation. High articular process-to-vertebral body (C6) ratio (APBR) and high-grade narrowing of the intervertebral foramen and periarticular osteolysis were noted for horses with forelimb lameness or signs of cervical pain or stiffness. No association was identified between APBR and age or sex. An APBR > 1.5 was found in only horses in the case group, and 32.3% of APJs with APBRs > 1.5 did not have any degenerative changes and periarticular osteolysis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CT was useful to identify abnormalities of the APJs of the cervical spine. An association existed between CT findings and clinical signs. The APJs can be enlarged without concurrent degenerative changes.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Rovel (rovel.tibor@gmail.com).