• 1.

    Krautwald-Junghanns M-E, Schumacher F, Tellhelm B. Evaluation of the lower respiratory tract in psittacines using radiology and computed tomography. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1993;34:382390.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Helmer P. Advances in diagnostic imaging. In: Harrison GJ, Lightfoot TL, eds. Clinical avian medicine. Vol 2. Palm Beach, Fla: Spix Publishing, 2006;653659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Krautwald-Junghanns ME, Kostka VM, Dörsch B. Comparative studies on the diagnostic value of conventional radiography and computed tomography in evaluating the heads of psittacine and raptorial birds. J Avian Med Surg 1998;12:149157.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Dos Santos GJ, da Silva JP, Hippólito AG, et al. Computed tomo-graphic and radiographic morphometric study of cardiac and coelomic dimensions in captive blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758) with varying body condition scores. Anat Histol Embryol 2020;49:299306.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Laniesse D, Beaufrère H, Mackenzie S, et al. Perforating foreign body in the ventriculus of a pet pigeon (Columba livia domestica). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2018;253:16101616.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Beaufrère H, Laniesse D, Kabakchiev C, et al. Multiple fractures and luxations of palatofacial bones in a hawk-headed parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;254:251256.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Barboza TK, Beaufrère H, Chalmers H. True coelomic hernia and herniorrhaphy in a yellow-crowned Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala). J Avian Med Surg 2018;32:221225.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Scarabelli S, Cripps P, Rioja E, et al. Adverse reactions following administration of contrast media for diagnostic imaging in anaesthetized dogs and cats: a retrospective study. Vet Anaesth Analg 2016;43:502510.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Agresti A. An introduction to categorical data analysis. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

  • 10.

    McCullough PA, Choi JP, Feghali GA, et al. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016;68:14651473.

  • 11.

    Morcos SK, Thomsen HS. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media. Eur Radiol 2001;11:12671275.

  • 12.

    Namasivayam S, Kalra MK, Torres WE, et al. Adverse reactions to intravenous iodinated contrast media: an update. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2006;35:164169.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Krautwald-Junghanns ME, Schloemer J, Pees M. Iodine-based contrast media in avian medicine. J Exot Pet Med 2008;17:189197.

  • 14.

    Pollard RE, Pascoe PJ. Severe reaction to intravenous administration of ionic iodinated contrast agent in two anesthetized dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233:274278.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Pollard RE, Puchalski SM, Pascoe PJ. Hemodynamic and serum biochemical alterations associated with intravenous administration of three types of contrast media in anesthetized dogs. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:12681273.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Yu PH, Lee YL, Chen CL, et al. Comparison of three computed tomographic angiography protocols to assess diameters of major arteries in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Am J Vet Res 2018;79:4253.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Beaufrère H, Rodriguez D, Pariaut R, et al. Estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Am J Vet Res 2011;72:210218.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kirk N, Echols S, Wilcox C, et al. Comparison of different doses and delivery methods of IsoVue 370 IV for CT contrast study in birds, in Proceedings. ExoticsCon 2019 2019;103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Zhang B, Dong Y, Liang L, et al. The incidence, classification, and management of acute adverse reactions to the low-osmolar iodinated contrast media Isovue and Ultravist in contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95:e31709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Hartman GW, Hattery RR, Witten DM, et al. Mortality during urography: Mayo Clinic experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1982;139:919922.

  • 21.

    Masch WR, Wang CL, Davenport MS. Severe allergic-like contrast reactions: epidemiology and appropriate treatment. Abdom Radiol (NY) 2016;41:16321639.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Wysowski DK, Nourjah P. Deaths attributed to x-ray contrast media on US death certificates. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2006;186:613615.

  • 23.

    Pollard RE, Puchalski SM, Pascoe PJ, et al. Hemodynamic and serum biochemical alternations associated with intravenous administration of three types of contrast media in anesthetized cats. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:12741278.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Zhao F, Lei R, Yang SK, et al. Comparative effect of iso-osmolar versus low-osmolar contrast media on the incidence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in diabetic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Imaging 2019;19:38.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Zhang B, Liu J, Dong Y, et al. Extrinsic warming of low-osmolality iodinated contrast media to 37°C reduced the rate of allergic-like reaction. Allergy Asthma Proc 2018;39:e55e63.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    O’Malley B. Avian anatomy and physiology. In: O’Malley B, ed. Clinical anatomy and physiology of exotic species: structure and function of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians. London: Elsevier Ltd, 2005;97161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Park HJ, Park JW, Yang MS, et al. Re-exposure to low osmolar iodinated contrast media in patients with prior moderate-to-severe hypersensitivity reactions: a multicentre retrospective cohort study. Eur Radiol 2017;27:28862893.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Seamon AB, Hofmeister EH, Divers SJ. Outcome following inhalation anesthesia in birds at a veterinary referral hospital: 352 cases (2004–2014). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;251:814817.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Carpenter JW. Exotic animal formulary. 5th ed. St Louis: Elsevier, 2018.

Advertisement

Mortality rate of birds following intravenous administration of iodinated contrast medium for computed tomography

Julianne E. McCreadyFrom the Department of Clinical Studies (McCready, Appleby, Beaufrère) and Health Sciences Centre (Gardhouse), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Search for other papers by Julianne E. McCready in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Sara M. GardhouseFrom the Department of Clinical Studies (McCready, Appleby, Beaufrère) and Health Sciences Centre (Gardhouse), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Search for other papers by Sara M. Gardhouse in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Ryan ApplebyFrom the Department of Clinical Studies (McCready, Appleby, Beaufrère) and Health Sciences Centre (Gardhouse), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Search for other papers by Ryan Appleby in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
, and
Hugues BeaufrèreFrom the Department of Clinical Studies (McCready, Appleby, Beaufrère) and Health Sciences Centre (Gardhouse), Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

Search for other papers by Hugues Beaufrère in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify potential risk factors for death following IV or intraosseous (IO) administration of contrast medium in birds undergoing CT scans.

ANIMALS

120 birds that underwent 134 contrast-enhanced CT scans.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of birds of any species that underwent a CT scan which included administration of nonionic iodinated contrast medium from June 2013 to February 2020 were included. Information on birds and use of contrast medium was extracted from the medical records as well as information on deaths following IV or IO administration of contrast medium.

RESULTS

6 birds died shortly following administration of contrast medium. Necropsies were performed in 3 birds (2 cockatiels and 1 macaw), and all had lesions associated with the respiratory tract. When body weight was used as a binary variable to compare odds of death between small birds (≤ 150 g [0.33 lb]) and large birds (> 150 g), small birds had a 97-fold increased odds (OR, 97.5; 95% CI, 9.8 to 966.0) of dying following contrast medium administration. Following 131 CT scans with contrast medium administration (3 scans were excluded because of perivascular or subcutaneous leakage of contract medium), small birds had a mortality rate of 45.4% (5/11), compared with a mortality rate of 0.8% (1/120) for large (> 150 g) birds. Other variables (ie, sex, age, anesthesia or sedation, sedation protocol, and type of contrast medium) were not significantly associated with death after contrast medium administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although the administration of contrast medium cannot be conclusively confirmed as the cause of death in these birds, the high mortality rate for small birds coupled with the temporality of the event following contrast medium administration justifies the cautious use of contrast medium in small sick psittacine birds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:77–83)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify potential risk factors for death following IV or intraosseous (IO) administration of contrast medium in birds undergoing CT scans.

ANIMALS

120 birds that underwent 134 contrast-enhanced CT scans.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of birds of any species that underwent a CT scan which included administration of nonionic iodinated contrast medium from June 2013 to February 2020 were included. Information on birds and use of contrast medium was extracted from the medical records as well as information on deaths following IV or IO administration of contrast medium.

RESULTS

6 birds died shortly following administration of contrast medium. Necropsies were performed in 3 birds (2 cockatiels and 1 macaw), and all had lesions associated with the respiratory tract. When body weight was used as a binary variable to compare odds of death between small birds (≤ 150 g [0.33 lb]) and large birds (> 150 g), small birds had a 97-fold increased odds (OR, 97.5; 95% CI, 9.8 to 966.0) of dying following contrast medium administration. Following 131 CT scans with contrast medium administration (3 scans were excluded because of perivascular or subcutaneous leakage of contract medium), small birds had a mortality rate of 45.4% (5/11), compared with a mortality rate of 0.8% (1/120) for large (> 150 g) birds. Other variables (ie, sex, age, anesthesia or sedation, sedation protocol, and type of contrast medium) were not significantly associated with death after contrast medium administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although the administration of contrast medium cannot be conclusively confirmed as the cause of death in these birds, the high mortality rate for small birds coupled with the temporality of the event following contrast medium administration justifies the cautious use of contrast medium in small sick psittacine birds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:77–83)

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Appendix S1 (PDF 140 KB)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Beaufrère (beaufrer@uoguelph.ca).