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Survival time for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone: the Canine Lymphoma Steroid Only trial

Kenneth M. RassnickFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Dennis B. BaileyFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Debra A. KamstockFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Casey J. LeBlancFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Erika P. BergerFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Andrea B. FloryFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Michael A. KiselowFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Joanne L. IntileFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Erin K. MaloneFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Rebecca C. ReganFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Margaret L. MusserFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Nathan YandaFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Chad M. JohannesFrom The Veterinary Medical Center of Central New York, Syracuse, NY 13057 (Rassnick); Oradell Animal Hospital, Paramus, NJ 07652 (Bailey); KamPath Diagnostics and Investigation, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (Kamstock); Eastern VetPath, Bethesda, MD 20814 (LeBlanc); Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (Berger, Musser, Yanda, Johannes); Veterinary Specialty Hospital, San Diego, CA 92121 (Flory); Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care, Campbell, CA 95008 (Kiselow, Regan); Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (Intile); and MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets, Worthington, OH 43085 (Malone).

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate survival times for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone.

ANIMALS

109 client-owned dogs recruited from 15 institutions in the United States.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were treated with prednisone at a dosage of 40 mg/m2, PO, once daily for 7 days and at a dosage of 20 mg/m2, PO, once daily thereafter. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by owners with a visual analog scale when treatment was started (day 0), 1 and 2 weeks after treatment was started, and every 4 weeks thereafter. The primary outcome of interest was survival time as determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with survival time were examined.

RESULTS

Median overall survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 41 to 59 days). Factors associated with survival time included substage (a vs b) and immunopheno-type (B cell vs T cell). Owner-assigned QOL scores on days 0 and 14 were significantly positively correlated with survival time. When QOL score was dichotomized, dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores ≥ 50 had significantly longer survival times, compared with dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores < 50. No variables were predictive of long-term (> 120 days) survival.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that survival times were short for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone. Owner-perceived QOL and clinician-assigned sub-stage were both associated with survival time. Findings provide potentially important information for clinicians to discuss with owners of dogs with lymphoma at the time treatment decisions are made. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:62–71)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate survival times for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone.

ANIMALS

109 client-owned dogs recruited from 15 institutions in the United States.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were treated with prednisone at a dosage of 40 mg/m2, PO, once daily for 7 days and at a dosage of 20 mg/m2, PO, once daily thereafter. Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by owners with a visual analog scale when treatment was started (day 0), 1 and 2 weeks after treatment was started, and every 4 weeks thereafter. The primary outcome of interest was survival time as determined by the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors potentially associated with survival time were examined.

RESULTS

Median overall survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 41 to 59 days). Factors associated with survival time included substage (a vs b) and immunopheno-type (B cell vs T cell). Owner-assigned QOL scores on days 0 and 14 were significantly positively correlated with survival time. When QOL score was dichotomized, dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores ≥ 50 had significantly longer survival times, compared with dogs with day 0 or day 14 QOL scores < 50. No variables were predictive of long-term (> 120 days) survival.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that survival times were short for dogs with previously untreated, peripheral nodal, intermediate- or large-cell lymphoma treated with prednisone alone. Owner-perceived QOL and clinician-assigned sub-stage were both associated with survival time. Findings provide potentially important information for clinicians to discuss with owners of dogs with lymphoma at the time treatment decisions are made. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:62–71)

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 203 KB)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Rassnick (rassnick@vmccny.com).