• 1.

    Lehmann HS, Blache D, Drynan E, et al. Optimum drug combinations for the sedation of growing boars prior to castration. Animals (Basel) 2017;7:61.

  • 2.

    Heinonen ML, Raekallio MR, Oliviero C, et al. Comparison of azaperone-detomidine-butorphanol-ketamine and azaper-one-tiletamine-zolazepam for anaesthesia in piglets. Vet Anaesth Analg 2009;36:151157.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Ko JCH, Thurmon JC, Benson JG, et al. Evaluation of analgesia induced by epidural injection of detomidine or xylazine in swine. J Vet Anaesth 1992;19:5660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Ko JC, Williams BL, Smith VL, et al. Comparison of telazol, telazol-ketamine, telazol-xylazine, and telazol-ketamine-xylazine as chemical restraint and anesthetic induction combination in swine. Lab Anim Sci 1993;43:476480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Ko JC, Williams BL, McGrath CJ, et al. Comparison of anesthetic effects of telazol-xylazine xylazine, telazolxylazine-butorphanol, and telazol-xylazine-azaperone combinations in swine. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 1996;35:7174.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Lee JY, Jee HC, Jeong SM, et al. Comparison of anaesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of xylazine or medetomidine in combination with tiletamine/zolazepam in pigs. Vet Rec 2010;167:245249.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Nishimura R, Kim H, Matsunaga S, et al. Comparison of sedative and analgesic/anesthetic effects induced by medetomidine, acepromazine, azaperone, droperidol and midazolam in laboratory pigs. J Vet Med Sci 1993;55:687690.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Sakaguchi M, Nishimura R, Sasaki N, et al. Sedative effects of medetomidine in pigs. J Vet Med Sci 1992;54:643647.

  • 9.

    Ko JC, Williams BL, Rogers ER, et al. Increasing xylazine dose-enhanced anesthetic properties of telazol-xylazine combination in swine. Lab Anim Sci 1995;45:290294.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Brodbelt DC, Taylor PM. Comparison of two combinations of sedatives before anaesthetising pigs with halothane and nitrous oxide. Vet Rec 1999;145:283287.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Törneke K, Bergström U, Neil A. Interactions of xylazine and detomidine with α2-adrenoceptors in brain tissue from cattle, swine and rats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2003;26:205211.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lin HC, Riddle MG. Preliminary study of the effects of xylazine or detomidine with or without butorphanol for standing sedation in dairy cattle. Vet Ther 2003;4:285291.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Lee JY, Kim MC. Anesthesia of growing pigs with tiletamine-zolazepam and reversal with flumazenil. J Vet Med Sci 2012;74:335339.

  • 14.

    Barletta M, Austin BR, Ko JC, et al. Evaluation of dexmedetomidine and ketamine in combination with opioids as injectable anesthesia for castration in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:11591167.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Ko JCH, Payton M, Weil AB, et al. Comparison of anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol-medetomidine in dogs. Vet Ther 2007;8:113126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Antonaci F, Bovim G, Fasano ML, et al. Pain threshold in humans. A study with the pressure algometer. Funct Neurol 1992;7:283288.

  • 17.

    Taylor PM, Crosignani N, Lopes C, et al. Mechanical nociceptive thresholds using four probe configurations in horses. Vet Anaesth Analg 2016;43:99108.

  • 18.

    Lu DZ, Fan HG, Kun M, et al. Antagonistic effect of atipamezole, flumazenil and naloxone following anaesthesia with xylazine, tramadol and tiletamine/zolazepam combinations in pigs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2011;38:301309.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Comparison of anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-detomidine-butorphanol, tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine-butorphanol, and ketamine-detomidine-butorphanol in pigs

Li-Jen Chang MVM, PhD1, Jeff C. Ko DVM, MS1, Ann B. Weil MS, DVM1, and Hsin-Yi Weng MPH, PhD2
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-detomidine-butorphanol (TZDB), tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine-butorphanol (TZXB), and ketamine-detomidine-butorphanol (KDB) in pigs and to assess anesthetic recovery duration and quality following administration of tolazoline as a reversal agent.

ANIMALS

11 healthy 2.5-month-old castrated male Landrace mixed-breed pigs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, blinded crossover study design, pigs received the following anesthetic combinations, IM: TZDB (tiletamine-zolazepam [3 mg/kg {1.36 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg {0.08 mg/lb}], and butorphanol [0.12 mg/kg {0.05 mg/lb}]); TZXB (tiletamine-zolazepam [4 mg/kg {1.8 mg/lb}], xylazine [4 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.2 mg/kg {0.09 mg/lb}]); and KDB (ketamine [8 mg/kg {3.63 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.3 mg/kg {0.14 mg/lb}]). A 7-day washout period was provided between treatments. At 45 minutes of anesthesia, pigs received tolazoline (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IM; n = 6) treatment or control (5) treatment with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution.

RESULTS

All anesthetic combinations induced anesthesia. Endotracheal intubation was completed within 5 minutes after anesthetic administration in all pigs, except in 2 pigs following administration of KDB. Durations (mean ± SD) of endotracheal intubation and lateral recumbency in pigs that did not receive tolazoline were 55.3 ± 4.8 minutes, 83.8 ± 15.8 minutes, and 28.2 ± 4.5 minutes and 112.4 ± 18.7 minutes, 117.2 ± 16.7 minutes, and 79.7 ± 6.0 minutes, respectively, for the TZDB, TZXB, and KDB anesthetic treatments. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery for all anesthetic treatments without affecting the recovery quality.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All 3 anesthetic combinations were suitable for providing anesthesia in pigs. Tolazoline administration shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery without affecting the quality of recovery.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic, analgesic, and cardiorespiratory effects of tiletamine-zolazepam-detomidine-butorphanol (TZDB), tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine-butorphanol (TZXB), and ketamine-detomidine-butorphanol (KDB) in pigs and to assess anesthetic recovery duration and quality following administration of tolazoline as a reversal agent.

ANIMALS

11 healthy 2.5-month-old castrated male Landrace mixed-breed pigs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, blinded crossover study design, pigs received the following anesthetic combinations, IM: TZDB (tiletamine-zolazepam [3 mg/kg {1.36 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg {0.08 mg/lb}], and butorphanol [0.12 mg/kg {0.05 mg/lb}]); TZXB (tiletamine-zolazepam [4 mg/kg {1.8 mg/lb}], xylazine [4 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.2 mg/kg {0.09 mg/lb}]); and KDB (ketamine [8 mg/kg {3.63 mg/lb}], detomidine [0.18 mg/kg], and butorphanol [0.3 mg/kg {0.14 mg/lb}]). A 7-day washout period was provided between treatments. At 45 minutes of anesthesia, pigs received tolazoline (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IM; n = 6) treatment or control (5) treatment with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution.

RESULTS

All anesthetic combinations induced anesthesia. Endotracheal intubation was completed within 5 minutes after anesthetic administration in all pigs, except in 2 pigs following administration of KDB. Durations (mean ± SD) of endotracheal intubation and lateral recumbency in pigs that did not receive tolazoline were 55.3 ± 4.8 minutes, 83.8 ± 15.8 minutes, and 28.2 ± 4.5 minutes and 112.4 ± 18.7 minutes, 117.2 ± 16.7 minutes, and 79.7 ± 6.0 minutes, respectively, for the TZDB, TZXB, and KDB anesthetic treatments. Tolazoline significantly shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery for all anesthetic treatments without affecting the recovery quality.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

All 3 anesthetic combinations were suitable for providing anesthesia in pigs. Tolazoline administration shortened the duration of anesthetic recovery without affecting the quality of recovery.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Chang's present address is the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

Address correspondence Dr. Ko (jcko@purdue.edu).