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Prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-, carbapenem-, and fluoroquinolone-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from the feces of horses and hospital surfaces at two equine specialty hospitals

Rachael J. AdamsDepartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Dixie F. MollenkopfDepartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Dimitria A. MathysDepartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Andrea WhittleRood & Riddle Equine Hospital, Lexington, KY 40511.

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Greg A. BallashDepartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Margaret MudgeDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Joshua B. DanielsDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526.

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Bonnie BarrRood & Riddle Equine Hospital, Lexington, KY 40511.

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Thomas E. WittumDepartment of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-, carbapenem-, and fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the feces of hospitalized horses and on hospital surfaces.

SAMPLE

Fecal and environmental samples were collected from The Ohio State University Galbreath Equine Center (OSUGEC) and a private referral equine hospital in Kentucky (KYEH). Feces were sampled within 24 hours after hospital admission and after 48 hours and 3 to 7 days of hospitalization.

PROCEDURES

Fecal and environmental samples were enriched, and then selective media were inoculated to support growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones.

RESULTS

358 fecal samples were obtained from 143 horses. More samples yielded growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes (AmpC β-lactamase, OR = 4.2; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, OR = 3.2; and fluoroquinolone resistance, OR = 4.0) after 48 hours of hospitalization, versus within 24 hours of hospital admission. Horses hospitalized at KYEH were at greater odds of having fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria (OR = 2.2). At OSUGEC, 82%, 64%, 0%, and 55% of 164 surfaces had Enterobacteriaceae bacteria with AmpC β-lactamase phenotype, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype, resistance to carbapenem, and resistance to fluoroquinolones, respectively; prevalences at KYEH were similarly distributed (52%, 32%, 1%, and 35% of 315 surfaces).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may be isolated from the feces of hospitalized horses and from the hospital environment. Hospitalization may lead to increased fecal carriage of clinically important antimicrobial-resistance genes.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-, carbapenem-, and fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the feces of hospitalized horses and on hospital surfaces.

SAMPLE

Fecal and environmental samples were collected from The Ohio State University Galbreath Equine Center (OSUGEC) and a private referral equine hospital in Kentucky (KYEH). Feces were sampled within 24 hours after hospital admission and after 48 hours and 3 to 7 days of hospitalization.

PROCEDURES

Fecal and environmental samples were enriched, and then selective media were inoculated to support growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones.

RESULTS

358 fecal samples were obtained from 143 horses. More samples yielded growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes (AmpC β-lactamase, OR = 4.2; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, OR = 3.2; and fluoroquinolone resistance, OR = 4.0) after 48 hours of hospitalization, versus within 24 hours of hospital admission. Horses hospitalized at KYEH were at greater odds of having fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria (OR = 2.2). At OSUGEC, 82%, 64%, 0%, and 55% of 164 surfaces had Enterobacteriaceae bacteria with AmpC β-lactamase phenotype, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype, resistance to carbapenem, and resistance to fluoroquinolones, respectively; prevalences at KYEH were similarly distributed (52%, 32%, 1%, and 35% of 315 surfaces).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may be isolated from the feces of hospitalized horses and from the hospital environment. Hospitalization may lead to increased fecal carriage of clinically important antimicrobial-resistance genes.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Wittum (wittum.1@osu.edu).