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Left atrial decompression as a palliative minimally invasive treatment for congestive heart failure caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs: 17 cases (2018–2019)

Justin W. AllenDepartment of Cardiology, VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90025.

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Kevin L. PhippsDepartment of Cardiology, VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90025.

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Anthony A. LlamasDepartment of Cardiology, VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90025.

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Kirstie A. BarrettDepartment of Cardiology, VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90025.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether left atrial decompression (LAD) would reduce left atrial pressure (LAP) in dogs with advanced myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) and to describe the LAD procedure and hemodynamic alterations and complications.

ANIMALS

17 dogs with advanced MMVD and left-sided CHF that underwent LAD.

PROCEDURES

The medical record database was retrospectively reviewed for all LAD procedures attempted in dogs with MMVD and left-sided CHF between October 2018 and June 2019. Data were collected regarding signalment (age, breed, weight, and sex), clinical signs, treatment, physical examination findings, and diagnostic testing before and after LAD. Procedural data were also collected including approach, technique, hemodynamic data, complications, and outcome.

RESULTS

18 LAD procedures performed in 17 patients were identified. Dogs ranged in age from 7.5 to 16 years old (median, 11 years) and ranged in body weight from 2.9 to 11.6 kg (6.4 to 25.5 lb) with a median body weight of 7.0 kg (15.4 lb). Minimally invasive creation of an atrial septal defect for the purpose of LAD was successful in all dogs without any intraoperative deaths. Before LAD, mean LAP was elevated and ranged from 8 to 32 mm Hg with a median value of 14 mm Hg (reference value, < 10 mm Hg). Following LAD, there was a significant decrease in mean LAP (median decrease of 6 mm Hg [range, 1 to 15 mm Hg]). Survival time following LAD ranged from 0 to 478 days (median, 195 days).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For dogs with advanced MMVD and left-sided CHF, LAD resulted in an immediate and substantial reduction in LAP.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether left atrial decompression (LAD) would reduce left atrial pressure (LAP) in dogs with advanced myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and left-sided congestive heart failure (CHF) and to describe the LAD procedure and hemodynamic alterations and complications.

ANIMALS

17 dogs with advanced MMVD and left-sided CHF that underwent LAD.

PROCEDURES

The medical record database was retrospectively reviewed for all LAD procedures attempted in dogs with MMVD and left-sided CHF between October 2018 and June 2019. Data were collected regarding signalment (age, breed, weight, and sex), clinical signs, treatment, physical examination findings, and diagnostic testing before and after LAD. Procedural data were also collected including approach, technique, hemodynamic data, complications, and outcome.

RESULTS

18 LAD procedures performed in 17 patients were identified. Dogs ranged in age from 7.5 to 16 years old (median, 11 years) and ranged in body weight from 2.9 to 11.6 kg (6.4 to 25.5 lb) with a median body weight of 7.0 kg (15.4 lb). Minimally invasive creation of an atrial septal defect for the purpose of LAD was successful in all dogs without any intraoperative deaths. Before LAD, mean LAP was elevated and ranged from 8 to 32 mm Hg with a median value of 14 mm Hg (reference value, < 10 mm Hg). Following LAD, there was a significant decrease in mean LAP (median decrease of 6 mm Hg [range, 1 to 15 mm Hg]). Survival time following LAD ranged from 0 to 478 days (median, 195 days).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For dogs with advanced MMVD and left-sided CHF, LAD resulted in an immediate and substantial reduction in LAP.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 132 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S2 (PDF 124 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S3 (PDF 119 KB)
    • Supplementary Video S1 (MP4 9,022 KB)
    • Supplementary Video S2 (MP4 8,391 KB)
    • Supplementary Video S3 (MP4 6,139 KB)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Allen (justin.allen@vca.com).