• 1.

    de Lahunta A, Glass EN, Kent M. Diencephalon. In: Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. 4th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2015;476498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Kent M, Platt SR, Schatzberg SJ. The neurology of balance: function and dysfunction of the vestibular system in dogs and cats. Vet J 2010;185:247258.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    de Lahunta A, Glass EN, Kent M. Small animal spinal cord disease. In: Veterinary neuroanatomy and clinical neurology. 4th ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2015;257303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    De Strobel F, Paluš V, \Vettorato E, et al. Cervical hyperaesthesia in dogs: an epidemiological retrospective study of 185 cases. J Small Anim Pract 2019;60:404410.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Coates JR, Jeffery ND. Perspectives on meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014;44:11571185.

  • 6.

    Granger N, Smith PM, Jeffery ND. Clinical findings and treatment of non-infectious meningoencephalomyelitis in dogs: a systematic review of 457 published cases from 1962 to 2008. Vet J 2010;184:290297.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Muñana KR, Luttgen PJ. Prognostic factors for dogs with granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis: 42 cases (1982–1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:19021906.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Talarico LR, Schatzberg SJ. Idiopathic granulomatous and necrotising inflammatory disorders of the canine central nervous system: a review and future perspectives. J Small Anim Pract 2010;51:138149.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Cornelis I, Volk HA, De Decker S. Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology. Vet Rec 2016;179:147.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Cornelis I, Van Ham L, Gielen I, et al. Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, prognostic factors, treatment and outcome in dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin: a review. Vet J 2019;244:3744.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kipar A, Baumgärtner W, Vogl C, et al. Immunohistochemical characterization of inflammatory cells in brains of dogs with granulomatous meningoencephalitis. Vet Pathol 1998;35:4352.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Woolcock AD, Wang A, Haley A, et al. Treatment of canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown aetiology with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids: 25 cases (2007–2012). Vet Med Sci 2016;2:125135.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Wong MA, Hopkins AL, Meeks JC, et al. Evaluation of treatment with a combination of azathioprine and prednisone in dogs with meningoencephalomyelitis of undetermined etiology: 40 cases (2000–2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:929935.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Jung DI, Kang BT, Park C, et al. A comparison of combination therapy (cyclosporine plus prednisolone) with sole prednisolone therapy in 7 dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis. J Vet Med Sci 2007;69:13031306.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

What Is Your Neurologic Diagnosis?

Alexa A. StephenDepartment of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602

Search for other papers by Alexa A. Stephen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Marc KentDepartment of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602

Search for other papers by Marc Kent in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
, and
Renee M. BarberDepartment of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602

Search for other papers by Renee M. Barber in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Kent (mkent1@uga.edu).