• 1.

    Mayhew J. Large animal neurology. 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009;1146.

  • 2.

    Reed SM, Furr M, Howe DK, et al. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: an updated consensus statement with a focus on parasite biology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. J Vet Intern Med 2016;30:491502.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Lunn DP, Davis-Poynter N, Flaminio MJ, et al. Equine herpesvirus-1 consensus statement. J Vet Intern Med 2009;23:450461.

  • 4.

    Khatibzadeh SM, Gold CB, Keggan AE, et al. West Nile virus–specific immunoglobulin isotype responses in vaccinated and infected horses. Am J Vet Res 2015;76:92100.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Feige K, Fürst A, Kaser-Hotz B, et al. Traumatic injury to the central nervous system in horses: occurrence, diagnosis and outcome. Equine Vet Educ 2000;12:220224.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Naylor RJ, Perkins JD, Allen S, et al. Histopathology and computed tomography of age-associated degeneration of the equine temporohyoid joint. Equine Vet J 2010;42:425430.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Cummings JF, de Lahunta A, George C, et al. Equine motor neuron disease; a preliminary report. Cornell Vet 1990;80:357379.

  • 8.

    Burns EN, Finno CJ. Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy: prevalence, impact, and management. Vet Med (Auckl) 2018;9:6367.

  • 9.

    Janes JG, Garrett KS, McQuerry KJ, et al. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with standing cervical radiographs for evaluation of vertebral canal stenosis in equine cervical stenotic myelopathy. Equine Vet J 2014;46:681686.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Aleman M, Finno CJ, Higgins RJ, et al. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of neuroaxonal dystrophy in Quarter Horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;239:823833.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Mayhew IG, deLahunta A, Whitlock RH, et al. Spinal cord disease in the horse. Cornell Vet 1978;68(suppl 6):1207.

  • 12.

    Nappert G, Vrins A, Breton L, et al. A retrospective study of nineteen ataxic horses. Can Vet J 1989;30:802806.

  • 13.

    Nout YS, Reed SM. Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. Equine Vet Educ 2003;15:212223.

  • 14.

    Levine JM, Ngheim PP, Levine GJ, et al. Associations of sex, breed, and age with cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy in horses: 811 cases (1974–2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233:14531458.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Brault LS, Cooper CA, Famula TR, et al. Mapping of equine cerebellar abiotrophy to ECA2 and identification of a potential causative mutation affecting expression of MUTYH. Genomics 2011;97:121129.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Blythe LL, Hultgren BD, Craig AM, et al. Clinical, viral, and genetic evaluation of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy in a family of Appaloosas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:10051013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Beech J, Haskins M. Genetic studies of neuraxonal dystrophy in the Morgan. Am J Vet Res 1987;48:109113.

  • 18.

    Finno CJ, Famula T, Aleman M, et al. Pedigree analysis and exclusion of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (TTPA) as a candidate gene for neuroaxonal dystrophy in the American Quarter Horse. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:177185.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Powers BE, Stashak TS, Nixon AJ, et al. Pathology of the vertebral column of horses with cervical static stenosis. Vet Pathol 1986;23:392399.

  • 20.

    Kronfeld DS, Meacham TN, Donoghue S. Dietary aspects of developmental orthopedic disease in young horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 1990;6:451465.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Falco MJ, Whitwell K, Palmer AC. An investigation into the genetics of ‘wobbler disease’ in Thoroughbred horses in Britain. Equine Vet J 1976;8:165169.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Loeser RF. The role of aging in the development of osteoarthritis. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 2017;128:4454.

  • 23.

    Colditz GA, Rosner B. Cumulative risk of breast cancer to age 70 years according to risk factor status: data from the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2000;152:950964.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Leitzmann MF, Rohrmann S. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates. Clin Epidemiol 2012;4:111.

  • 25.

    Koch C, Witte T. Temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in the horse. Equine Vet Educ 2014;26:121125.

  • 26.

    Muller JMV, Schulze M, Verder V, et al. Ataxia and weakness as uncommon primary manifestations of hepatic encephalopathy in a 15-year-old trotter gelding. Equine Vet Educ 2011;23:510.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Divers TJ, Mohammed HO, Cummings JF, et al. Equine motor neuron disease: findings in 28 horses and proposal of a pathophysiological mechanism for the disease. Equine Vet J 1994;26:409415.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Postmortem diagnoses of spinal ataxia in 316 horses in California

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 5 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine period prevalences of postmortem diagnoses for spinal cord or vertebral column lesions as underlying causes of ataxia (spinal ataxia) in horses.

ANIMALS

2,861 client-owned horses (316 with ataxia [ataxic group] and 2,545 without ataxia [control group]).

PROCEDURES

The medical records database of the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was searched to identify horses necropsied between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2017. Results were compared between the ataxic and control groups and between various groups of horses in the ataxic group. Period prevalences were determined for the most common causes of ataxia.

RESULTS

2,861 horses underwent full necropsy, and the period prevalences for the most common definitive diagnoses for ataxia were 2.7% (77/2,861) for cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM), 1.3% (38/2,861) for equine neuroaxonal dystrophy or equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD-EDM), and 0.9% (25/2,861) for trauma; the period prevalence of ataxia of unknown origin was 2.0% (56/2,861). Horses in the ataxic group (vs the control group) were more likely to have been warmblood horses (OR, 2.70) and less likely to have been Arabian horses (OR, 0.53). In the ataxic group, horses < 5 (vs ≥ 5) years of age had greater odds of CVCM (OR, 2.82) or eNAD-EDM (OR, 6.17) versus trauma or ataxia of unknown origin. Horses in the ataxic group with CVCM were more likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 2.54), whereas horses with eNAD-EDM were more likely American Quarter Horses (OR, 2.95) and less likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 0.11).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that breed distributions differed for horses with CVCM versus eNAD-EDM; therefore, breed should be considered in the clinical evaluation of spinal ataxia in horses.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine period prevalences of postmortem diagnoses for spinal cord or vertebral column lesions as underlying causes of ataxia (spinal ataxia) in horses.

ANIMALS

2,861 client-owned horses (316 with ataxia [ataxic group] and 2,545 without ataxia [control group]).

PROCEDURES

The medical records database of the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital was searched to identify horses necropsied between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2017. Results were compared between the ataxic and control groups and between various groups of horses in the ataxic group. Period prevalences were determined for the most common causes of ataxia.

RESULTS

2,861 horses underwent full necropsy, and the period prevalences for the most common definitive diagnoses for ataxia were 2.7% (77/2,861) for cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM), 1.3% (38/2,861) for equine neuroaxonal dystrophy or equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD-EDM), and 0.9% (25/2,861) for trauma; the period prevalence of ataxia of unknown origin was 2.0% (56/2,861). Horses in the ataxic group (vs the control group) were more likely to have been warmblood horses (OR, 2.70) and less likely to have been Arabian horses (OR, 0.53). In the ataxic group, horses < 5 (vs ≥ 5) years of age had greater odds of CVCM (OR, 2.82) or eNAD-EDM (OR, 6.17) versus trauma or ataxia of unknown origin. Horses in the ataxic group with CVCM were more likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 2.54), whereas horses with eNAD-EDM were more likely American Quarter Horses (OR, 2.95) and less likely Thoroughbreds (OR, 0.11).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that breed distributions differed for horses with CVCM versus eNAD-EDM; therefore, breed should be considered in the clinical evaluation of spinal ataxia in horses.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Figure S1 (PDF 294 KB)
    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 88 KB)

Contributor Notes

Dr. Hales' present address is Morris Animal Foundation, Denver, CO 80246.

Address correspondence to Dr. Finno (cjfinno@ucdavis.edu).