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Cryptorchidectomy with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs: 47 cases (2000–2018)

Jase A. Skelton DVM, MS1, Aubrey N. Baird DVM, MS1, Jan F. Hawkins DVM1, and Audrey Ruple DVM, MS, PhD2
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  • 1 From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 2 Department of Public Health, College of Health and Human Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.

ANIMALS

47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.

RESULTS

Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe cryptorchidectomy performed with a paramedian or inguinal approach in domestic pigs and compare findings for commercial-breed pigs with those for pot-bellied pigs.

ANIMALS

47 client-owned (33 commercial-breed and 14 pot-bellied) pigs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify pigs that underwent surgical treatment for cryptorchidism from 2000 to 2018. Signalment, location of retained testes, surgeon, surgical approach, surgery time, anesthesia time, and postoperative complications were recorded. Complications were assessed with long-term follow-up. Age and surgical variables were compared between commercial-breed pigs and pot-bellied pigs.

RESULTS

Retained testes were most commonly located in the abdomen (27/47 [57%] left-sided, 15/47 [32%] right-sided, and 2/47 [4%] bilateral); 2 pigs each had 1 retained testis in the inguinal region, and 1 pig had 1 retained testis in the abdomen and 1 in the inguinal region. Forty-four pigs with abdominally retained testes were treated successfully with a paramedian surgical approach, including 3 for which an inguinal approach was attempted first. An inguinal approach was successful for 3 pigs with inguinally retained testes and 1 with an abdominally retained testis. Standard castration techniques were used for normally descended and inguinally retained testes. Long-term follow-up was available for 34 pigs; minor complications were reported for 3 (9%). Pot-bellied pigs were significantly older than commercial-breed pigs. No other intergroup differences were found.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The paramedian surgical approach was successfully used for removal of abdominally retained testes in all pigs that underwent the procedure. The overall complication rate for cryptorchidectomy in the study sample was low.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Skelton (skelton0@purdue.edu).