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Innate and acquired immune responses of colostrum-fed neonatal Holstein calves following intranasal vaccination with two commercially available modified-live virus vaccines

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  • 1 From Merck Animal Health, Madison, NJ 07940.
  • | 2 Johnson Research LLC, Parma, ID 83660.
  • | 3 Department of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 4 Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization (VIDO)–Intervac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare immune responses induced by 2 commercially available vaccines with a bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) component following intranasal (IN) administration to colostrum-fed calves.

ANIMALS

90 male Holstein calves (ages, 5 to 14 days).

PROCEDURES

In a randomized complete block design, each calf received 2 mL (1 mL/nostril) of vaccine A (n = 30), vaccine B (30), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (30) on day 0. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum anti-BHV1 IgG titer, and nasal fluid (NF) samples were collected for determination of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ concentrations and for secretory IgA titers against BHV1, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida at predetermined times for 42 days after vaccination.

RESULTS

All calves were seropositive for anti-BHV1 IgG, and the mean anti-BHV1 IgG titer did not differ significantly among the 3 groups at any time. Both vaccines induced significant transient increases in NF IFN-α and IFN-γ concentrations. On day 5, mean IFN-α concentration and the proportion of calves with detectable IFN-α concentrations for the vaccine A group were significantly greater than those for the vaccine B and control groups. On day 42, the mean NF anti–P multocida IgA titers for both vaccine groups were significantly greater than that of the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both vaccines induced innate and acquired immune responses in calves with colostral antibodies. The magnitude of the IFN-α response and proportion of calves with detectable IFN-α differed between the 2 vaccine groups. Both vaccines appeared to enhance the IgA response against P multocida.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare immune responses induced by 2 commercially available vaccines with a bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) component following intranasal (IN) administration to colostrum-fed calves.

ANIMALS

90 male Holstein calves (ages, 5 to 14 days).

PROCEDURES

In a randomized complete block design, each calf received 2 mL (1 mL/nostril) of vaccine A (n = 30), vaccine B (30), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (30) on day 0. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum anti-BHV1 IgG titer, and nasal fluid (NF) samples were collected for determination of interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ concentrations and for secretory IgA titers against BHV1, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida at predetermined times for 42 days after vaccination.

RESULTS

All calves were seropositive for anti-BHV1 IgG, and the mean anti-BHV1 IgG titer did not differ significantly among the 3 groups at any time. Both vaccines induced significant transient increases in NF IFN-α and IFN-γ concentrations. On day 5, mean IFN-α concentration and the proportion of calves with detectable IFN-α concentrations for the vaccine A group were significantly greater than those for the vaccine B and control groups. On day 42, the mean NF anti–P multocida IgA titers for both vaccine groups were significantly greater than that of the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both vaccines induced innate and acquired immune responses in calves with colostral antibodies. The magnitude of the IFN-α response and proportion of calves with detectable IFN-α differed between the 2 vaccine groups. Both vaccines appeared to enhance the IgA response against P multocida.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Midla (Lowell.Midla@Merck.com).