• 1. Bergen DJ, Gartrell BD. Discospondylitis in a yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes). J Avian Med Surg 2010;24:5863.

  • 2. Field CL, Beaufrère H, Wakamatsu N, et al. Discospondylitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus in an African black-footed penguin (Spheniscus demersus). J Avian Med Surg 2012;26:232238.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Poeta P, Sargo RF, Valente JM, et al. Serratia marcescens discospondylitis in a white stork (Ciconia ciconia). SOJ Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;4:15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Maier K, Fischer D, Hartmann A, et al. Vertebral osteomyelitis and septic arthritis associated with Staphylococcus hyicus in a juvenile peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). J Avian Med Surg 2015;29:216223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Wise DR. Staphylococcal osteomyelitis of the avian vertebral column. Res Vet Sci 1971;12:169171.

  • 6. Makrai L, Nemes C, Simon A, et al. Association of Enterococcus cecorum with vertebral osteomyelitis and spondylolisthesis in broiler parent chicks. Acta Vet Hung 2011;59:1121.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Braga JFV, Silva CC, Teixeira MPFT, et al. Vertebral osteomyelitis associated with single and mixed bacterial infection in broilers. Avian Pathol 2016;45:640648.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. LaCroix JA. Vertebral body osteomyelitis: a case report. Vet Radiol 1973;14:1721.

  • 9. Orosz SE, Bradshaw G. Avian neuroanatomy revisited: from clinical principles to avian cognition. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2007;10:775802.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Platt S. Evaluating and treating the nervous system. In: Harrison GJ, Lightfoot T, eds. Clinical avian medicine. Palm Beach, Fla: Spix Pubishing, 2006;2:493515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Pessacq-Asenjo TP. The nerve endings of the glycogen body of embryonic and adult avian spinal cord: on the existence of two different varieties of nerve fibers. Growth 1984;48:385390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. King AS, McLelland J. Nervous system. In: Birds, their structure and function. London, England: Baillière Tindall, 1984;237284.

Advertisement

What Is Your Neurologic Diagnosis?

Shangzhe Xie BVMS, MVS, PhD1, Gabrina Shuang-Li Goh, BVSc1, Virginie De Busscher DVM2, and Chia-Da Hsu BVM, MSc1
View More View Less
  • 1 1Wildlife Reserves Singapore, Singapore 729826, Singapore
  • | 2 2Veterinary Emergency & Specialty Hospital, Singapore 535815, Singapore

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Xie (shangzhe.xie@wrs.com.sg).