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Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy drainage in a dog with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to pancreatitis

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  • 1 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
  • | 2 2Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old 36.3-kg (79.9-lb) spayed female Rottweiler was evaluated because of anorexia and vomiting.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from serum biochemical analyses, CT, and cytologic examination.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Only marginal improvement was observed after 24 hours of traditional medical management; therefore, novel continual biliary drainage was achieved with ultrasonographically and fluoroscopically guided placement of a percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy drainage (PCD) catheter. Within 24 hours after PCD catheter placement, the dog was eating regularly, had increased intestinal peristaltic sounds on abdominal auscultation, no longer required nasogastric tube feeding, and had decreased serum total bilirubin concentration (7.7 mg/dL, compared with 23.1 mg/dL preoperatively). Bile recycling was performed by administering the drained bile back to the patient through a nasogastric tube. The PCD remained in place for 5 weeks and was successfully removed after follow-up cholangiography confirmed bile duct patency.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Transhepatic PCD catheter placement provided fast resolution of EHBO secondary to pancreatitis in the dog of the present report. We believe that this minimally invasive, interventional procedure has the potential to decrease morbidity and death in select patients, compared with traditional surgical options, and that additional research is warranted regarding clinical use, safety, and long-term results of this procedure in veterinary patients, particularly those that have transient causes of EHBO, are too unstable to undergo more invasive biliary diversion techniques, or have biliary diseases that could benefit from palliation alone.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old 36.3-kg (79.9-lb) spayed female Rottweiler was evaluated because of anorexia and vomiting.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO) secondary to pancreatitis was suspected on the basis of results from serum biochemical analyses, CT, and cytologic examination.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Only marginal improvement was observed after 24 hours of traditional medical management; therefore, novel continual biliary drainage was achieved with ultrasonographically and fluoroscopically guided placement of a percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy drainage (PCD) catheter. Within 24 hours after PCD catheter placement, the dog was eating regularly, had increased intestinal peristaltic sounds on abdominal auscultation, no longer required nasogastric tube feeding, and had decreased serum total bilirubin concentration (7.7 mg/dL, compared with 23.1 mg/dL preoperatively). Bile recycling was performed by administering the drained bile back to the patient through a nasogastric tube. The PCD remained in place for 5 weeks and was successfully removed after follow-up cholangiography confirmed bile duct patency.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Transhepatic PCD catheter placement provided fast resolution of EHBO secondary to pancreatitis in the dog of the present report. We believe that this minimally invasive, interventional procedure has the potential to decrease morbidity and death in select patients, compared with traditional surgical options, and that additional research is warranted regarding clinical use, safety, and long-term results of this procedure in veterinary patients, particularly those that have transient causes of EHBO, are too unstable to undergo more invasive biliary diversion techniques, or have biliary diseases that could benefit from palliation alone.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Thomson's present address is the Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Address correspondence to Dr. Thomson (thomsonc@colostate.edu).