• 1. Liptak JM. Canine thyroid carcinoma. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 2007;22:7581.

  • 2. Brodey RS, Kelly DF. Thyroid neoplasms in the dog. A clinicopathologic study of fifty-seven cases. Cancer 1968;22:406416.

  • 3. Harari J, Patterson JS, Rosenthal RC. Clinical and pathologic features of thyroid tumors in 26 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986;188:11601164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Birchard SJ, Roesel OF. Neoplasia of the thyroid gland in the dog: a retrospective study of 16 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1981;17:369372.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Tuohy JL, Worley DR, Withrow SJ. Outcome following simultaneous bilateral thyroid lobectomy for treatment of thyroid gland carcinoma in dogs: 15 cases (1994–2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:95103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Wucherer KL, Wilke V. Thyroid cancer in dogs: an update based on 638 cases (1995–2005). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2010;46:249254.

  • 7. Bertolini G, Drigo M, Angeloni L, et al. Incidental and non-incidental canine thyroid tumors assessed by multidetector row computed tomography: a single-centre cross sectional study in 4520 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2017;58:304314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Pollard RE, Bohannon LK, Feldman EC. Prevalence of incidental thyroid nodules in ultrasound studies of dogs with hypercalcemia (2008–2013). Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2015;56:6367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Leav I, Schiller AL, Rijnberk A, et al. Adenomas and carcinomas of the canine and feline thyroid. Am J Pathol 1976;83:61122.

  • 10. Radlinsky MG. Thyroid surgery in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:789798.

  • 11. Flanders JA. Surgical therapy of the thyroid. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1994;24:607621.

  • 12. Klein MK, Powers BE, Withrow SJ, et al. Treatment of thyroid carcinoma in dogs by surgical resection alone: 20 cases (1981–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:10071009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Carver JR, Kapatkin A, Patnaik AK. A comparison of medullary thyroid carcinoma and thyroid adenocarcinoma in dogs: a retrospective study of 38 cases. Vet Surg 1995;24:315319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Turrel JM, McEntee MC, Burke BP, et al. Sodium iodide I 131 treatment of dogs with nonresectable thyroid tumors: 39 cases (1990–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:542548.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Fineman LS, Hamilton TA, de Gortari A, et al. Cisplatin chemotherapy for treatment of thyroid carcinoma in dogs: 13 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998;34:109112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Nadeau ME, Kitchell BE. Evaluation of the use of chemotherapy and other prognostic variables for surgically excised canine thyroid carcinoma with and without metastasis. Can Vet J 2011;52:994998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. London C, Mathie T, Stingle N, et al. Preliminary evidence for biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia) in solid tumours. Vet Comp Oncol 2012;10:194205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Barber LG. Thyroid tumors in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2007;37:755773.

  • 19. Slensky KA, Volk SW, Schwarz T, et al. Acute severe hemorrhage secondary to arterial invasion in a dog with thyroid carcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:649653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Melián C, Morales M, Espinosa de los Monteros A, et al. Horner's syndrome associated with a functional thyroid carcinoma in a dog. J Small Anim Pract 1996;37:591593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Mitchell M, Hurvo LI, Troy GC. Canine thyroid carcinomas: clinical occurrence, staging by means of scintiscans, and therapy of 15 cases. Vet Surg 1979;8:112118.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Campos M, Ducatelle R, Rutteman G, et al. Clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical prognostic factors in dogs with thyroid carcinoma. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:18051813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Ovbey DH, Wilson DV, Bednarski RM, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for canine post-anesthetic aspiration pneumonia (1999–2009): a multicenter study. Vet Anaesth Analg 2014;41:127136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. Macphail C. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2014;44:1931.

  • 25. Broome C, Burbidge HM, Pfeiffer DU. Prevalence of laryngeal paresis in dogs undergoing general anaesthesia. Aust Vet J 2000;78:769772.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Panciera DL. Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2001;31:935950.

Advertisement

Complications and outcomes associated with unilateral thyroidectomy in dogs with naturally occurring thyroid tumors: 156 cases (2003–2015)

View More View Less
  • 1 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.
  • | 2 2Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 3 3Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 4VCA Canada Alta Vista Animal Hospital, 2616 Bank St, Ottawa, ON K1T 1M9, Canada.
  • | 5 5Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
  • | 6 6Department of Veterinary Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe complications and outcomes of dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of thyroid tumors.

ANIMALS

156 dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for a naturally occurring thyroid tumor.

PROCEDURES

Dogs that underwent a unilateral thyroidectomy in 2003 through 2015 were included in a multi-institutional retrospective study. For each dog, information gathered through evaluation of electronic and paper records included perioperative complications, short-term outcome (survival to discharge from the hospital vs nonsurvival), and long-term outcome (survival time).

RESULTS

In the perioperative period, complications occurred in 31 of the 156 (19.9%) dogs; hemorrhage was the most common intraoperative complication (12 [7.7%] dogs). Five of 156 (3.2%) dogs received a blood transfusion; these 5 dogs were among the 12 dogs that had hemorrhage listed as an intraoperative complication. Immediately after surgery, the most common complication was aspiration pneumonia (5 [3.2%] dogs). One hundred fifty-three of 156 (98.1%) dogs that underwent unilateral thyroidectomy survived to discharge from the hospital. One hundred-thirteen dogs were lost to follow-up; from the available data, the median survival time was 911 days (95% confidence interval, 704 to 1,466 days).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that unilateral thyroidectomy in dogs with a naturally occurring thyroid tumor was associated with a perioperative mortality rate of 1.9% and a complication rate of 19.9% and that hemorrhage and aspiration pneumonia were the most common complications. Long-term survival of dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of thyroid tumors was not uncommon.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe complications and outcomes of dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of thyroid tumors.

ANIMALS

156 dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for a naturally occurring thyroid tumor.

PROCEDURES

Dogs that underwent a unilateral thyroidectomy in 2003 through 2015 were included in a multi-institutional retrospective study. For each dog, information gathered through evaluation of electronic and paper records included perioperative complications, short-term outcome (survival to discharge from the hospital vs nonsurvival), and long-term outcome (survival time).

RESULTS

In the perioperative period, complications occurred in 31 of the 156 (19.9%) dogs; hemorrhage was the most common intraoperative complication (12 [7.7%] dogs). Five of 156 (3.2%) dogs received a blood transfusion; these 5 dogs were among the 12 dogs that had hemorrhage listed as an intraoperative complication. Immediately after surgery, the most common complication was aspiration pneumonia (5 [3.2%] dogs). One hundred fifty-three of 156 (98.1%) dogs that underwent unilateral thyroidectomy survived to discharge from the hospital. One hundred-thirteen dogs were lost to follow-up; from the available data, the median survival time was 911 days (95% confidence interval, 704 to 1,466 days).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that unilateral thyroidectomy in dogs with a naturally occurring thyroid tumor was associated with a perioperative mortality rate of 1.9% and a complication rate of 19.9% and that hemorrhage and aspiration pneumonia were the most common complications. Long-term survival of dogs undergoing unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of thyroid tumors was not uncommon.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Reagan's present address is Seattle Veterinary Specialists, 805 Madison St, Ste 100, Seattle, WA 98104. Dr. Selmic's present address is Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Dr. Duffy's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607. Dr. Boston's present address is VCA 404 Veterinary Emergency and Referral Hospital, 510 Harry Walker Pkwy S, Newmarket, ON L3Y 0B3, Canada.

Address correspondence to Dr. Selmic (selmic.1@osu.edu).