• 1. Chun R, de Lorimier LP. Update on the biology and management of canine osteosarcoma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2003;33:491516.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2. Liptak JM, Dernell WS, Ehrhart N, et al. Canine appendicular osteosarcoma: diagnosis and palliative treatment. Compend Contin Educ Vet 2004;26:172182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3. Mayer MN, Grier CK. Palliative radiation therapy for canine osteosarcoma. Can Vet J 2006;47:707709.

  • 4. Coomer A, Farese J, Milner R, et al. Radiation therapy for canine appendicular osteosarcoma. Vet Comp Oncol 2009;7:1527.

  • 5. Spodnick GJ, Berg J, Rand WM, et al. Prognosis for dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone: 162 cases (1978–1988). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;200:995999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. LaRue SM, Withrow SJ, Powers BE, et al. Limb-sparing treatment for osteosarcoma in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;195:17341744.

  • 7. Kuntz CA, Asselin TL, Dernell WS, et al. Limb salvage surgery for osteosarcoma of the proximal humerus: outcome in dog. Vet Surg 1998;27:417422.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Skorupski KA, Uhl JM, Szivek A, et al. Carboplatin versus alternating carboplatin and doxorubicin for the adjuvant treatment of canine appendicular osteosarcoma: a randomized, phase III trial. Vet Comp Oncol 2016;14:8187.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Selmic LE, Burton JH, Thamm DH, et al. Comparison of carboplatin and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy protocols in 470 dogs after amputation for treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 2014;28:554563.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Withrow SJ, Straw RC, Brekke JH, et al. Slow release adjuvant cisplatin for treatment of metastatic canine osteosarcoma. Eur J Exp Musculoskelet Res 1995;4:105110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Mehl ML, Séguin B, Dernell WS, et al. Survival analysis of one versus two treatments of local delivery cisplatin in a biodegradable polymer for canine osteosarcoma. Vet Comp Oncol 2005;3:8186.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Withrow SJ, Liptak JM, Straw RC, et al. Biodegradable cisplatin polymer in limb-sparing surgery for canine osteosarcoma. Ann Surg Oncol 2004;11:705713.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Straw RC, Withrow SJ, Douple EB, et al. Effects of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II released from D,L-polylactic acid implanted adjacent to cortical allografts in dogs. J Orthop Res 1994;12:871877.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Simcock JO, Withers SS, Prpich CY, et al. Evaluation of a single subcutaneous infusion of carboplatin as adjuvant chemotherapy for dogs with osteosarcoma: 17 cases (2006–2010). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:608614.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Séguin B. Amputation. In: Johnston SA, Tobias KM, eds. Veterinary surgery: small animal. 2nd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Inc, 2018;12101223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16. Frimberger A, Moore A. Safety first: handling chemotherapy drugs, in Proceedings. Australian Vet Assoc Regional Conf 2012.

  • 17. Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. The Clinical guidelines (nursing): cytotoxic drugs - the management of. Available at www.rch.org.au/rchcpg/index.cfm?doc_id=8948. Accessed Jan 23, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Veterinary Co-operative Oncology Group. Veterinary Co-operative Oncology Group - Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (VCOG-CTCAE) following chemotherapy or biological antineoplastic therapy in dogs and cats v1.0. Vet Comp Oncol 2004;2:195213.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Cox DR. Regression models and life-tables. J Royal Stat Soc Series B (Methodol) 1972;34:187220.

  • 20. Fox LE. Carboplatin. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2000;36:1314.

  • 21. Mauldin GN, Matus RE, Withrow SJ, et al. Canine osteosarcoma. Treatment by amputation versus amputation and adjunctive chemotherapy using doxorubicin and cisplatin. J Vet Intern Med 1988;2:177180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Thompson JP, Fugent MJ. Evaluation of survival times after limb amputation, with and without subsequent administration of cisplatin, for treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs: 30 cases (1979–1990). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;200:531533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Rosenberger JA, Pablo NV, Crawford PC. Prevalence of and intrinsic risk factors of appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs: 179 cases (1996–2005). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231:10761080.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. McNeill CJ, Overley B, Shofer SF, et al. Characterization of the biological behavior of appendicular osteosarcoma in Rottweilers and a comparison with other breeds: a review of 258 dogs. Vet Comp Oncol 2007;5:9098.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25. Brown DC, Conzemius MG, Shofer F, et al. Epidemiologic evaluation of postoperative wound infections in dogs and cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:13021306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26. Turk R, Singh A, Weese JS. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs. Vet Surg 2015;44:28.

  • 27. Berríos-Torres SI, Umscheid CA, Bratzler DW, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection, 2017. JAMA Surg 2017;152:784791.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28. Magee C, Rodeheaver GT, Golden GT, et al. Potentiation of wound infection by surgical drains. Am J Surg 1976;131:547549.

  • 29. Lascelles BD, Dernell WS, Correa MT, et al. Improved survival associated with postoperative wound infections in dogs treated with limb salvage surgery for osteosarcoma. Ann Surg Oncol 2005;12:10731083.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30. Liptak JM, Dernell WS, Ehrhart N, et al. Cortical allograft and endoprosthesis for limb-sparing surgery in dogs with distal radial osteosarcoma: a prospective clinical comparison of two different limb-spearing techniques. Vet Surg 2006;35:518533.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31. Culp WT, Olea-Popelka F, Sefton J, et al. Evaluation of outcome and prognostic factors for dogs living greater than one year after diagnosis of osteosarcoma: 90 cases (1997–2008). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014;245:11411146.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32. Mehl ML, Withrow SJ, Séguin B, et al. Spontaneous regression of osteosarcoma in four dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:614617.

  • 33. Phillips B, Powers BE, Dernell WS, et al. Use of single-agent carboplatin as adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy in conjunction with amputation for appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2009;45:3338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34. Bergman PJ, MacEwen EG, Kurzman ID. Amputation and carboplatin for treatment of dogs with osteosarcoma: 48 cases (1191–1993). J Vet Intern Med 1996;10:7681.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35. Schmidt AF, Nielen M, Klungel OH, et al. Prognostic factors of early metastasis and mortality in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma after receiving surgery: an individual patient data meta-analysis. Prev Vet Med 2013;112:414422.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36. Boerman I, Selvarajah GT, Nielen M, et al. Prognostic factors in canine appendicular osteosarcoma - a meta-analysis. BMC Vet Res 2012;8:56.

  • 37. Selvarajah GT, Kirpensteijn J. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers of canine osteosarcoma. Vet J 2010;185:2835.

  • 38. Ehrhart N, Dernell WS, Hoffmann WE, et al. Prognostic importance of alkaline phosphatase activity in serum from dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma: 75 cases (1990–1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:10021006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39. Garzotto CK, Berg J, Hoffmann WE, et al. Prognostic significance of serum alkaline phosphatase activity in canine appendicular osteosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 2000;14:587592.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40. Sternberg RA, Pondenis HC, Yang X, et al. Association between absolute tumor burden and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in canine appendicular osteosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 2013;27:955963.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41. Saam DE, Liptak JM, Stalker MJ, et al. Predictors of outcome in dogs treated with adjuvant carboplatin for appendicular osteosarcoma: 65 cases (1996–2006). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011;238:195206.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42. Hillers KR, Dernell WS, Lafferty MH, et al. Incidence and prognostic importance of lymph node metastases in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma: 228 cases (1986–2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:13641367.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43. McMahon M, Mathie T, Stingle N, et al. Adjuvant carboplatin and gemcitabine combination chemotherapy postamputation in canine appendicular osteosarcoma. J Vet Intern Med 2011;25:511517.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44. Rassnick KM, Ruslander DM, Cotter SM, et al. Use of carboplatin for treatment of dogs with malignant melanoma: 27 cases (1989–2000). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:14441448.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45. Chun R, Knapp DW, Widmer WR, et al. Phase II clinical trial of carboplatin in canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:279283.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46. Ogilvie GK, Krawiec DR, Gelberg HB, et al. Evaluation of a short-term saline diuresis protocol for the administration of cisplatin. Am J Vet Res 1988;49:10761078.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47. Ogilvie GK, Straw RC, Powers BE, et al. Prevalence of nephrotoxicosis associated with a short-term saline solution diuresis protocol for the administration of cisplatin to dogs with malignant tumors: 61 cases (1987–1989). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;199:613616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Adverse events and outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with limb amputation and a single subcutaneous infusion of carboplatin

Alessandra C. Santamaria1Southpaws Specialty Surgery for Animals, 3 Roper St, Moorabbin, VIC 3189, Australia.

Search for other papers by Alessandra C. Santamaria in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, BSc
,
James O. Simcock1Southpaws Specialty Surgery for Animals, 3 Roper St, Moorabbin, VIC 3189, Australia.

Search for other papers by James O. Simcock in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc
, and
Charles A. Kuntz1Southpaws Specialty Surgery for Animals, 3 Roper St, Moorabbin, VIC 3189, Australia.

Search for other papers by Charles A. Kuntz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate adverse events and outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with limb amputation followed by a single SC infusion of carboplatin.

ANIMALS

45 client-owned dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with limb amputation and SC infusion of carboplatin between January 1, 2006, and January 15, 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data collected included signalment, tumor location, treatment, results of clinicopathologic analyses and diagnostic imaging, adverse effects of chemotherapy, metastasis-free interval, survival time, and communications with owners and referring veterinarians. Findings were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test.

RESULTS

45 dogs were identified that met the inclusion criteria (12 of the 45 dogs had been reported in a previous case series). No dogs had pulmonary metastases detectable by CT or radiography before treatment. All dogs completed the protocol as planned. Median survival time (MST) was 196 days; metastasis-free interval was 197 days. Three of the 45 (7%) dogs required hospitalization for gastrointestinal signs related to chemotherapy. There were no chemotherapy-related deaths.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that although treatment with SC infusion of carboplatin was well tolerated, the MST for dogs in the present study was similar to reported MSTs in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with limb amputation alone and was in the lower range of historically reported survival times for dogs receiving IV adjunctive chemotherapy. Therefore, we could not recommend this protocol of SC infusion of carboplatin but recommended that protocols with IV administration of carboplatin be used instead.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate adverse events and outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with limb amputation followed by a single SC infusion of carboplatin.

ANIMALS

45 client-owned dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with limb amputation and SC infusion of carboplatin between January 1, 2006, and January 15, 2017.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data collected included signalment, tumor location, treatment, results of clinicopathologic analyses and diagnostic imaging, adverse effects of chemotherapy, metastasis-free interval, survival time, and communications with owners and referring veterinarians. Findings were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test.

RESULTS

45 dogs were identified that met the inclusion criteria (12 of the 45 dogs had been reported in a previous case series). No dogs had pulmonary metastases detectable by CT or radiography before treatment. All dogs completed the protocol as planned. Median survival time (MST) was 196 days; metastasis-free interval was 197 days. Three of the 45 (7%) dogs required hospitalization for gastrointestinal signs related to chemotherapy. There were no chemotherapy-related deaths.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that although treatment with SC infusion of carboplatin was well tolerated, the MST for dogs in the present study was similar to reported MSTs in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with limb amputation alone and was in the lower range of historically reported survival times for dogs receiving IV adjunctive chemotherapy. Therefore, we could not recommend this protocol of SC infusion of carboplatin but recommended that protocols with IV administration of carboplatin be used instead.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Santamaria (alexsantamaria@me.com).