Investigation of associations between preoperative acepromazine or dexmedetomidine administration and development of arterial hypotension or bradycardia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

Manuel Martin-Flores 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.

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Monika M. Mostowy 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.

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Ella Pittman 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.

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Daniel M. Sakai 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.

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Hussni O. Mohammed 2Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.

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Robin D. Gleed 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.

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Luis Campoy 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.
1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.
2Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between preanesthetic administration of acepromazine or dexmedetomidine and development of arterial hypotension or bradycardia in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS 341 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records were searched to identify dogs that underwent ovariohysterectomy between January 2009 and December 2010 and received hydromorphone with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine as preanesthetic agents. Demographic data, sedative and anesthetic drugs, duration of anesthesia, average vaporizer setting, positive pressure ventilation, occurrence of hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 60 mm Hg) or bradycardia (> 50% reduction in heart rate, compared with the preanesthetic value), time to first occurrence and duration of hypotension, and treatment with dopamine or anticholinergic agents were recorded. Data were compared between dogs that received acepromazine and dexmedetomidine. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between the treatments of interest (and other putative risk factors) and development of hypotension or bradycardia.

RESULTS For dogs that received acepromazine, the odds of developing hypotension were 2.61 times those for dogs that received dexmedetomidine. Hypotension occurred earlier and lasted longer in dogs that received acepromazine, and this group was treated with dopamine more frequently than the group that received dexmedetomidine. Lower body weight was associated with increased odds of hypotension. Odds of developing bradycardia were greater for dogs sedated with dexmedetomidine (vs acepromazine) and for dogs that underwent anesthetic induction with propofol or a ketamine-benzodiazepine combination (vs thiopental).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anesthetic complications differed between isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy after premedication with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine in this study; future prospective investigations are warranted to investigate these effects in other, less homogenous populations of dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential associations between preanesthetic administration of acepromazine or dexmedetomidine and development of arterial hypotension or bradycardia in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS 341 dogs.

PROCEDURES Medical records were searched to identify dogs that underwent ovariohysterectomy between January 2009 and December 2010 and received hydromorphone with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine as preanesthetic agents. Demographic data, sedative and anesthetic drugs, duration of anesthesia, average vaporizer setting, positive pressure ventilation, occurrence of hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 60 mm Hg) or bradycardia (> 50% reduction in heart rate, compared with the preanesthetic value), time to first occurrence and duration of hypotension, and treatment with dopamine or anticholinergic agents were recorded. Data were compared between dogs that received acepromazine and dexmedetomidine. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between the treatments of interest (and other putative risk factors) and development of hypotension or bradycardia.

RESULTS For dogs that received acepromazine, the odds of developing hypotension were 2.61 times those for dogs that received dexmedetomidine. Hypotension occurred earlier and lasted longer in dogs that received acepromazine, and this group was treated with dopamine more frequently than the group that received dexmedetomidine. Lower body weight was associated with increased odds of hypotension. Odds of developing bradycardia were greater for dogs sedated with dexmedetomidine (vs acepromazine) and for dogs that underwent anesthetic induction with propofol or a ketamine-benzodiazepine combination (vs thiopental).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anesthetic complications differed between isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy after premedication with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine in this study; future prospective investigations are warranted to investigate these effects in other, less homogenous populations of dogs.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Mostowy's present address is Red Bank Veterinary Hospital, 197 Hance Ave, Tinton Falls, NJ 07724.

Dr. Pittman's present address is New England Equine Medical and Surgical Center, 15 Members Way, Dover, NH 03820.

Dr. Sakai's present address is Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Address correspondence to Dr. Martin-Flores (martinflores@cornell.edu).
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