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Assessment of clinical and computed tomographic findings for association with the outcome of intraoral cheek tooth extraction in horses and ponies

Benjamin B. Dubois1Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Equine Referral Hospital, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, AL9 7TA, England.

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Jonathon J. Dixon1Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Equine Referral Hospital, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, AL9 7TA, England.

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Thomas H. Witte1Department of Clinical Sciences and Services, Equine Referral Hospital, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, AL9 7TA, England.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical and CT findings for horses and ponies undergoing intraoral cheek tooth extraction and assess potential associations between these features and outcome of the procedure.

ANIMALS

74 horses and 7 ponies.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify horses and ponies that underwent CT and intraoral extraction of ≥ 1 cheek tooth with standing sedation. Signalment and clinical variables were recorded, and CT scans were reviewed. Anatomic location and measurements of affected teeth; abnormalities of the periodontium, pulp, infundibula, roots, and tooth shape; fracture presence and type; presence of sinusitis; and affected sinus cavities were assessed by a surgeon and a radiologist. Intraoral extraction outcome was recorded as successful (complete removal of the tooth in 1 intraoral extraction procedure) or unsuccessful. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between clinical or CT findings and outcome.

RESULTS

89 cheek teeth (80 maxillary and 9 mandibular) were included in the analyses. Sixty of 89 (67%) cheek teeth were extracted successfully (56/80 [70%] maxillary and 4/9 [44%] mandibular cheek teeth). Only presence of a simple fracture (vs no fracture) was associated with outcome on multivariable regression analysis; odds of successful intraoral extraction were significantly lower when this feature was present.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Most extractions of cheek teeth in the study sample were successful, and results may be useful for practitioners in refining cheek tooth extraction plans for horses and ponies. Further studies are required to assess whether specific CT findings can be used to predict the outcome of intraoral extraction in equids.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical and CT findings for horses and ponies undergoing intraoral cheek tooth extraction and assess potential associations between these features and outcome of the procedure.

ANIMALS

74 horses and 7 ponies.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were searched to identify horses and ponies that underwent CT and intraoral extraction of ≥ 1 cheek tooth with standing sedation. Signalment and clinical variables were recorded, and CT scans were reviewed. Anatomic location and measurements of affected teeth; abnormalities of the periodontium, pulp, infundibula, roots, and tooth shape; fracture presence and type; presence of sinusitis; and affected sinus cavities were assessed by a surgeon and a radiologist. Intraoral extraction outcome was recorded as successful (complete removal of the tooth in 1 intraoral extraction procedure) or unsuccessful. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between clinical or CT findings and outcome.

RESULTS

89 cheek teeth (80 maxillary and 9 mandibular) were included in the analyses. Sixty of 89 (67%) cheek teeth were extracted successfully (56/80 [70%] maxillary and 4/9 [44%] mandibular cheek teeth). Only presence of a simple fracture (vs no fracture) was associated with outcome on multivariable regression analysis; odds of successful intraoral extraction were significantly lower when this feature was present.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Most extractions of cheek teeth in the study sample were successful, and results may be useful for practitioners in refining cheek tooth extraction plans for horses and ponies. Further studies are required to assess whether specific CT findings can be used to predict the outcome of intraoral extraction in equids.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Dubois' present address is Marion Dupont Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Leesburg, VA 20176.

Dr. Dixon's present address is Rainbow Equine Hospital Ltd, Rainbow Ln, Malton, YO17 6SG, England.

Dr. Witte's present address is Oaklands Equine Hospital, Low Ln, Yarm, TS15 9JT, England.

Address correspondence to Dr. Dubois (bendubois_probos@hotmail.com).