• 1. Blair A, Hayes HM. Cancer and other causes of death among United States veterinarians, 1966–1977. Int J Cancer 1980; 25:181185.

  • 2. Blair A, Hayes HM. Mortality patterns among US veterinarians, 1947–1977: an expanded study. Int J Epidemiol 1982;11:391397.

  • 3. Lange WR, Frankenfield DL, Carico J, et al. Deaths among members of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, 1965–89. Public Health Rep 1992;107:160166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Miller JM, Beaumont JJ. Suicide, cancer, and other causes of death among California veterinarians, 1960–1992. Am J Ind Med 1995;27:3749.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5. Nett RJ, Witte TK, Holzbauer SM, et al. Notes from the field: prevalence of risk factors for suicide among veterinarians—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:131132.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6. Nett RJ, Witte TK, Holzbauer SM, et al. Risk factors for suicide, attitudes toward mental illness, and practice-related stressors among US veterinarians. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:945955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Fowler HN, Holzbauer SM, Smith KE, et al. Survey of occupational hazards in Minnesota veterinary practices in 2012. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:207218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8. Skipper GE, Williams JB. Failure to acknowledge high suicide risk among veterinarians. J Vet Med Educ 2012;39:7982.

  • 9. Bartram DJ, Baldwin DS. Veterinary surgeons and suicide: a structured review of possible influences on increased risk. Vet Rec 2010;166:388397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Platt B, Hawton K, Simkin S, et al. Systematic review of the prevalence of suicide in veterinary surgeons. Occup Med (Lond) 2010;60:436446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Platt B, Hawton K, Simkin S, et al. Suicidal behaviour and psychosocial problems in veterinary surgeons: a systematic review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2012;47:223240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12. Hatch PH, Winefield HR, Christie BA, et al. Workplace stress, mental health, and burnout of veterinarians in Australia. Aust Vet J 2011;89:460468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13. Shirangi A, Fritschi L, Holman CD, et al. Mental health in female veterinarians: effects of working hours and having children. Aust Vet J 2013;91:123130.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. Kohn R, Saxena S, Levav I, et al. The treatment gap in mental health care. Bull World Health Organ 2004;82:858866.

  • 15. Andersen RM. National health surveys and the behavioral model of health services use. Med Care 2008;46:647653.

  • 16. Babitsch B, Gohl D, von Lengerke T. Re-revisiting Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use: a systematic review of studies from 1998–2011. Psychosoc Med 2012;9:Doc11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. Clement S, Schauman O, Graham T, et al. What is the impact of mental health–related stigma on help-seeking? A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Psychol Med 2015;45:1127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18. Livingston JD, Boyd JE. Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Soc Sci Med 2010;71:21502161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Kobau R, Zack MM. Attitudes toward mental illness in adults by mental illness–related factors and chronic disease status: 2007 and 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Am J Public Health 2013;103:20782089.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Kobau R, Diiorio C, Chapman D, et al. Attitudes about mental illness and its treatment: validation of a generic scale for public health surveillance of mental illness associated stigma. Community Ment Health J 2010;46:164176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. CDC. Attitudes toward mental illness—35 states, DC, and Puerto Rico, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2010;59:619625.

  • 22. Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, et al. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60:184189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Hanisch SE, Twomey CD, Szeto AC, et al. The effectiveness of interventions targeting the stigma of mental illness at the workplace: a systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 2016;16:1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24. AVMA. Veterinary Workforce Study (2013): modeling capacity utilization. Schaumburg, Ill: AVMA, 2013.

  • 25. Bartram DJ, Sinclair JM, Baldwin DS. Interventions with potential to improve the mental health and wellbeing of UK veterinary surgeons. Vet Rec 2010;166:518523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Characteristics associated with negative attitudes toward mental illness among US veterinarians

Ahmed M. Kassem MBBCh, PhD1,3, Tracy K. Witte PhD4, Randall J. Nett MD, MPH5, and Kris K. Carter DVM, MVPM2,3
View More View Less
  • 1 1Epidemic Intelligence Service, Division of Scientific Education and Professional Development, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329.
  • | 2 2Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329.
  • | 3 3Division of Public Health, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, 450 W State St, Boise, ID 83702.
  • | 4 4Department of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
  • | 5 5National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, 1095 Willowdale Rd, Morgantown, WV 26505.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To explore associations between demographic, occupational, and mental health characteristics and negative attitudes toward mental illness among veterinarians.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE

9,522 veterinarians employed in the United States.

PROCEDURES

Data from a previously conducted voluntary, anonymous, web-based survey were used. Negative attitude was defined as slight or strong disagreement with 2 statements: “Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives” (treatment effectiveness) and “People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness” (social support). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with negative attitudes.

RESULTS

Of the 9,522 respondents, 6,585 (69.2%) were female, 4,523 (47.5%) were 40 to 59 years old, 291 (3.1%) had a negative attitude toward treatment effectiveness, and 4,504 (47.3%) had a negative attitude toward social support. After adjusting for other variables, negative attitude toward treatment effectiveness was significantly more likely in males, those with 10 to 19 (vs 1 to 9) years of practice experience, solo practitioners, those in government (vs “other”) practice, those with evidence of serious psychological distress, and those reporting suicidal ideation after veterinary school and significantly less likely in those receiving mental health treatment. A negative attitude toward social support was significantly less likely in males and significantly more likely in 40 to 59 (vs 20 to 39) year olds, childless respondents, solo practitioners, those without membership in a veterinary association, those with evidence of serious psychological distress, those reporting depression during or after veterinary school, and those reporting suicidal ideation after veterinary school.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Characteristics such as age, sex, practice setting, and mental illness history might be useful to consider when targeting interventions to support and educate veterinarians about mental illness.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To explore associations between demographic, occupational, and mental health characteristics and negative attitudes toward mental illness among veterinarians.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional survey.

SAMPLE

9,522 veterinarians employed in the United States.

PROCEDURES

Data from a previously conducted voluntary, anonymous, web-based survey were used. Negative attitude was defined as slight or strong disagreement with 2 statements: “Treatment can help people with mental illness lead normal lives” (treatment effectiveness) and “People are generally caring and sympathetic to people with mental illness” (social support). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with negative attitudes.

RESULTS

Of the 9,522 respondents, 6,585 (69.2%) were female, 4,523 (47.5%) were 40 to 59 years old, 291 (3.1%) had a negative attitude toward treatment effectiveness, and 4,504 (47.3%) had a negative attitude toward social support. After adjusting for other variables, negative attitude toward treatment effectiveness was significantly more likely in males, those with 10 to 19 (vs 1 to 9) years of practice experience, solo practitioners, those in government (vs “other”) practice, those with evidence of serious psychological distress, and those reporting suicidal ideation after veterinary school and significantly less likely in those receiving mental health treatment. A negative attitude toward social support was significantly less likely in males and significantly more likely in 40 to 59 (vs 20 to 39) year olds, childless respondents, solo practitioners, those without membership in a veterinary association, those with evidence of serious psychological distress, those reporting depression during or after veterinary school, and those reporting suicidal ideation after veterinary school.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Characteristics such as age, sex, practice setting, and mental illness history might be useful to consider when targeting interventions to support and educate veterinarians about mental illness.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Kassem's present address is the Global Immunization Division, CDC, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329.

Address correspondence to Dr. Kassem (akassem@cdc.gov).