• 1. Jutkowitz LA. Reproductive emergencies. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2005;35:397420.

  • 2. Pretzer SD. Medical management of canine and feline dystocia. Theriogenology 2008;70:332336.

  • 3. Klaphake E, Paul-Murphy J. Disorders of the reproductive and urinary systems. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2012;217231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4. Bishop CR. Reproductive medicine of rabbits and rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2002;5:507535.

  • 5. Harcourt-Brown FM. Disorders of the reproductive tract of rabbits. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2017;20:555587.

  • 6. Vella D, Donnelly TM. Basic anatomy, physiology, and husbandry. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2012;157173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7. Dickie E. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Can Vet J 2011;52:8083.

  • 8. Devarathnam J, Kamalakar G, Devi Prasad V, et al. Surgical management of dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Indian Vet J 2016;93:5859.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9. Mohinder S, Adarsh K, Pankaj S, et al. Dystocia due to foetal anasarca in an Angora rabbit: anaesthetic and surgical management. Indian J Vet Surg 2000;21:109110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10. Mexican Association for Conservation and Study of Lagomorphs (AMCELA), Romero Malpica FJ, Rangel Cordero H, Williams DF. Sylvilagus bachmani. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008:e.T41302A10435277. Available at: dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T41302A10435277.en. Accessed Nov 1, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11. Farrow CS, Morgan JP, Story EC. Late term fetal death in the dog: early radiographic diagnosis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1976;17:1117.

  • 12. Eckermann-Ross C. Hormonal regulation and calcium metabolism in the rabbit. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2008;11:139152.

  • 13. Maaskant A, Brujin CM, Schutrups AH, et al. Dystocia in Friesian mares: prevalence, causes and outcome following caesarean section. Equine Vet Educ 2010;22:190195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14. McCue PM, Ferris RA. Parturition, dystocia and foal survival: a retrospective study of 1047 births. Equine Vet J Suppl 2012;44:2225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15. Easson W. A review of rabbit and rodent production medicine. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 2001;10:131139.

  • 16. Norton JL, Dallap BL, Johnston JK, et al. Retrospective study of dystocia in mares at a referral hospital. Equine Vet J 2007;39:3741.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17. DeCubellis J. Common emergencies in rabbits, guinea pigs, and chinchillas. Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2016;19:411429.

  • 18. Hawkins MG, Bishop CR. Disease problems of guinea pigs. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits, and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. 3rd ed. St Louis: Elsevier Saunders, 2012;295310.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19. Joachim RA, Hildebrandt M, Odor J, et al. Murine stress-triggered abortion is mediated by increase of CD8(+) TNF-α(+) decidual cells via substance P. Am J Reprod Immunol 2001;45:303309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20. Markert UR, Arck PC, McBey BA, et al. Stress-triggered abortions are associated with alterations of granulated cells in the decidua. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997;37:94100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21. Mulder EJ, Robles de Medine PG, Huizink AC, et al. Prenatal maternal stress: effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Hum Dev 2002;70:314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22. Hudson R, Muller A, Kennedy GA. Parturition in the rabbit is compromised by daytime nursing: the role of oxytocin. Biol Reprod 1995;53:519524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23. Traas AM. Surgical management of canine and feline dystocia. Theriogenology 2008;70:337342.

Advertisement

Clinical and pathological findings for rabbits with dystocia: 10 cases (1996–2016)

View More View Less
  • 1 1William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 2Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize clinical and pathological findings of rabbits evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of dystocia.

DESIGN

Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS

9 client-owned rabbits and 1 wild rabbit with signs of dystocia evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1996 through 2016.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of rabbits were reviewed to collect data on signalment; medical history; physical examination, laboratory, diagnostic imaging, and procedural findings; treatment; final diagnosis; and outcome. Data were summarized.

RESULTS

Dystocia in 7 rabbits was successfully managed through medical treatment, assisted vaginal delivery, or both (n = 6) or surgery alone (1); 3 rabbits were euthanized. Primiparous does, does ≤ 4 years old, and does of small breeds (< 2 kg [4.4 lb]) were most common. All client-owned rabbits had clinical signs of abnormal second-stage parturition, whereas the wild rabbit had only hemorrhagic vulvar discharge. Imaging was used to identify the number, size, and state of fetuses in most rabbits. Overall, 35 fetuses were accounted for, 25 of which were dead or later died. The cause of dystocia was determined for 8 rabbits and included fetal-maternal mismatch (n = 4), uterine inertia (2), fetal death or mummification (1), and stress-induced abortion (1).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Obstructive dystocia from fetal macrosomia with or without secondary uterine inertia was the most common cause of dystocia in the evaluated rabbits. Although medical management was successful for many rabbits with dystocia in this study, surgery could still be required in other affected rabbits, particularly when fetal-maternal mismatch is involved.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table S1 (PDF 153 kb)

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Sanchez-Migallon Guzman (guzman@ucdavis.edu).