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Histologic evaluation of mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes during staging of oral malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in dogs

Janet A. Grimes DVM, MS1, Lisa A. Mestrinho DVM, PhD2, John Berg DVM, MS3, Sarah Cass BS3, Michelle L. Oblak DVM, DVSc4, Susan Murphy MVB5, Pierre M. Amsellem DVM, MSc6, Penny Brown BVSc7, Annick Hamaide DVM, PhD8, and Brad M. Matz DVM, MS1
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  • 1 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849.
  • | 2 2Centro de Investigación Interdisciplinaria en Salud Animal (CIISA), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, 1300-477 Lisbon, Portugal.
  • | 3 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 4 4Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
  • | 5 5Fitzpatrick Referrals—Oncology and Soft Tissue, Guildford Hospital, 70 Priestley Rd, Guildford, GU2 7AJ, England.
  • | 6 6Department of Companion Animals, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada.
  • | 7 7Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Riverside Corporate Park, 1 Richardson Pl, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia.
  • | 8 8Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Liège, Liège, BE 4000, Belgium.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess histologic evaluation of mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (MRLNs) for metastatic disease during tumor staging for dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

DESIGN

Retrospective multi-institutional study.

ANIMALS

27 dogs with OMM and 21 dogs with OSCC.

PROCEDURES

Medical record databases of 8 institutions were searched to identify dogs with OMM or OSCC that underwent unilateral or bilateral extirpation of the MLNs and MRLNs during the same procedure between January 2004 and April 2016. Information extracted from the records included signalment, primary mass location and size, diagnostic imaging results, histologic results for the primary tumor and all lymph nodes evaluated, and whether distant metastasis developed.

RESULTS

Prevalence of lymph node metastasis did not differ significantly between dogs with OMM (10/27 [37%]) and dogs with OSCC (6/21 [29%]). Distant metastasis was identified in 11 (41%) dogs with OMM and was suspected in 1 dog with OSCC. The MRLN was affected in 13 of 16 dogs with lymph node metastasis, and 3 of those dogs had metastasis to the MRLN without concurrent metastasis to an MLN. Metastasis was identified in lymph nodes contralateral to the primary tumor in 4 of 17 dogs that underwent contralateral lymph node removal.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated histologic evaluation of only 1 MLN was insufficient to definitively rule out lymph node metastasis in dogs with OMM or OSCC; therefore, bilateral lymphadenectomy of the MLN and MRLN lymphocentra is recommended for such dogs.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess histologic evaluation of mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes (MRLNs) for metastatic disease during tumor staging for dogs with oral malignant melanoma (OMM) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

DESIGN

Retrospective multi-institutional study.

ANIMALS

27 dogs with OMM and 21 dogs with OSCC.

PROCEDURES

Medical record databases of 8 institutions were searched to identify dogs with OMM or OSCC that underwent unilateral or bilateral extirpation of the MLNs and MRLNs during the same procedure between January 2004 and April 2016. Information extracted from the records included signalment, primary mass location and size, diagnostic imaging results, histologic results for the primary tumor and all lymph nodes evaluated, and whether distant metastasis developed.

RESULTS

Prevalence of lymph node metastasis did not differ significantly between dogs with OMM (10/27 [37%]) and dogs with OSCC (6/21 [29%]). Distant metastasis was identified in 11 (41%) dogs with OMM and was suspected in 1 dog with OSCC. The MRLN was affected in 13 of 16 dogs with lymph node metastasis, and 3 of those dogs had metastasis to the MRLN without concurrent metastasis to an MLN. Metastasis was identified in lymph nodes contralateral to the primary tumor in 4 of 17 dogs that underwent contralateral lymph node removal.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated histologic evaluation of only 1 MLN was insufficient to definitively rule out lymph node metastasis in dogs with OMM or OSCC; therefore, bilateral lymphadenectomy of the MLN and MRLN lymphocentra is recommended for such dogs.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Grimes' present address is the Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Address correspondence to Dr. Grimes (jgrimes@uga.edu).