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Use of tube cystostomy in the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in a Bactrian camel

Julie M. Rosser1Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

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Sarah I. Jacob1Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

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Sabrina H. Brounts1Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 6-year-old castrated male Bactrian camel was evaluated because of a 14hour history of oliguria and stranguria that progressed to anuria.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Perineal urethral pulsations and intermittent tail flagging with no accompanying urination were observed. Ultrasonography of the urethra revealed multiple hyperechoic foci with shadowing artifact indicative of calculi present in the penile urethra distal to the sigmoid flexure. Rectal palpation revealed a pulsating hard urethra and intact distended urinary bladder. Further clinical examination was not possible because of challenges associated with handling the camel.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Urethral catheterization through a perineal urethral incision failed to achieve urinary bladder decompression. Tube cystostomy was performed to prevent bladder rupture. Urethrocystography performed 3 days after surgery revealed a urethral rupture at the level of the prepuce. Five weeks after surgery, the camel could urinate a steady stream via the urethrotomy site. Seven weeks after surgery, the cystostomy tube was removed, and the urethrotomy site was modified to provide a permanent urethral opening via perineal urethrostomy. During 6 years of subsequent periodic follow-up by telephone, the owner reported that the camel continued to do well and urinate through the revised opening.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed description of a tube cystostomy in an adult camel with obstructive urolithiasis that includes information on the patient's long-term outcome. This technique was a viable option in the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in this camel and may be useful for other large camelids as well.

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 6-year-old castrated male Bactrian camel was evaluated because of a 14hour history of oliguria and stranguria that progressed to anuria.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Perineal urethral pulsations and intermittent tail flagging with no accompanying urination were observed. Ultrasonography of the urethra revealed multiple hyperechoic foci with shadowing artifact indicative of calculi present in the penile urethra distal to the sigmoid flexure. Rectal palpation revealed a pulsating hard urethra and intact distended urinary bladder. Further clinical examination was not possible because of challenges associated with handling the camel.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Urethral catheterization through a perineal urethral incision failed to achieve urinary bladder decompression. Tube cystostomy was performed to prevent bladder rupture. Urethrocystography performed 3 days after surgery revealed a urethral rupture at the level of the prepuce. Five weeks after surgery, the camel could urinate a steady stream via the urethrotomy site. Seven weeks after surgery, the cystostomy tube was removed, and the urethrotomy site was modified to provide a permanent urethral opening via perineal urethrostomy. During 6 years of subsequent periodic follow-up by telephone, the owner reported that the camel continued to do well and urinate through the revised opening.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed description of a tube cystostomy in an adult camel with obstructive urolithiasis that includes information on the patient's long-term outcome. This technique was a viable option in the surgical management of obstructive urolithiasis in this camel and may be useful for other large camelids as well.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Rosser's present address is Vienna University of Technology, Faculty of Technical Chemistry, Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, 1060 Vienna, Austria.

Dr. Jacob's present address is Department of Comparative Medicine and Integrative Biology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824.

Address correspondence to Dr. Brounts (sabrina.brounts@wisc.edu).